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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe Sherry:
Dry, med, sweet fortified wine made around town of Jerez de la Fronterra in Southern Spain. Base wine is dry, neutral, low acid white wine made from Palomino grape.
Describe Port:
Fortified wine made in Duro Portugal. Most is purple, ruby or tawny. Some white.
Describe Sherry maturation process:
Matured using solera system
Matured in old casks that contain wine but do not impart oak flavors.
Technique blends younger and older wines together continually as they age
Ensure consistent style of mature wine
Most flavors come from aging process
Differences in style due to differences in aging periods and conditions.
What are the styles of sherry?
Oloroso Dulce or Cream
Pedro Ximinez
Describe fino sherry:
Pale, yeasty aromas, med bodied, dry. Flor yeast protects wine from oxidation during aging.
15-17% ABV
Drink young
Best chilled
Made in Jerez and Puerto de Santa Maria
Describe manzanilla:
Similar style as fino but made in only in Sanlucar de Barrameda
Driest and most pungent of all sherries
sea climate causes flor to grow thicker
Describe oloroso:
Fortified after ferm to 18%
Oxygen kils flor - oxidation
Brown color
Meaty, nutty, oxidative aromas
full bodied and dry
med or sweet depending on how much they have been sweetened before bottling
18-20% ABV
Room temp
Can keep a few weeks after opening b/c already oxidized in aging

Oloroso Dulce or Creame Sherries sweetened before bottling
Describe Pedro Ximenez:
Intensely sweet made from sun-dried PX grapes
Almost black, intense dried fruits, full-bodied, syrupy
Used as sweetening component of the finest sweetened Sherries
Describe Port production process:
Blend of black grapes, sufficient color and tannin vigorously extracted from skins. while high proportion of sugar in must, grape derived spirits is mixed with the partially fermented grape juice. Kills off yeast, stopping ferm, results in wine that is sugary and high in alcohol. Wine aged in large oak vessels before vatting and bottling
What are the styles of Port?
Late Bottled Vintage
Describe Ruby Port:
Inexpensive, non-vintage
less than 3 years aging before bottling
Simple, fruity

Reserve Ruby: uses better quality wines with more intense, complex fruit flavors. Longer cask aging (up to 5 yrs) softens and integrates the alcohol
Describe LBV Port:
Late Bottled Vintage:
Similar to Ruby Reserve
Wines come from single year's harvest
Do not need decanting

Traditional Style LBV needs decanting (not filtered before bottling)

Ready to drink on release
Intense red and black fruit flavors
hint of sweet spice
sweet, high alcohol, little or no tannins
med or low acid
Describe Vintage Ports:
Long-lived wines
Only made in good years
Bottled unfiltered after short period in oak
Initially have high tannin
intense fruit flavor, sweetness and alcohol
benefit from bottle age
evolve into cooked fruit, animal and vegetal notes
Describe Inexpensive Tawny Ports:
Inexpensive: lighter style, pink rather than deep red with toffee and caramel flavors
Usually made by mixing paler-colored ruby ports with some inexpensive white port
Describe Reserve Tawny Ports:
Aged at least 7 years in oak
Breaks down intense fruit, encourages oxidation, kernel flavors
oxygen attacks color - med tawny

Best are Tawny with Indication of Age: 10, 20, 30, 40
Stated age is average, not minimum
Do not need decanting
Best consumed closest to bottling date
Serve slightly chilled
What is colheita port?
tawny ports from a single year, bottled with the date of the harvest on the label. The law states that colheita ports must be aged in wood for at least seven years, although most are aged for considerably longer. The wines take on all the nuances of an aged tawny but should also express the characteristics of a single year. All colheita ports carry the date of bottling and most wines should be drunk within a year or so of that date
What is distillation?
Process that takes one component of a liquid and concentrates it. For spirits, aim is to increase the alcohol content of the liquid.
Describe distillation process:
Ethanol alcohol boils at lower temp that water. Warming alcohol liquid - alcohol boiled off, then collected, cooled and condensed bac into higher alcohol liquid
The water mostly left behind with solids, colors, compounds, unfermented sugars
What are the two types of distillation categories?
Pot still: oldest, simplest
Pot usually copper, contains base alcohol liquid while heated - vapors flow through neck into condenser, cools, back into stronger alcohol
heads: boil off first (poison)
hearts: spirit
tails: least volatile, boil off last
heads and tails returned to pot to redistill

Continuous (Column) Stills: Single distillation can produce a liquid very close to pure ethanol
Describe spirit strength and characteristics:
~40% ABV - relatively smooth, bottled and consumed without further maturation

Spirits with lower strength contain more impurities and flavor character of base material - generally need to be matured in oak, or charcoal filtered.

All spirits water-white when come off still and bone dry (sugar is volatile)
Color comes from coloring (caramel) or effect of oak
Sweetness is added or come from breakdown of oak into sugars (Bourbon)
How is brandy made?
Wine made by fermenting whole, fresh grapes and if distilled = brandy. most aged in oak and colored with caramel before bottling - brown/amber in color
Describe Cognac:
Oak-aged grape brandy from delimited region north of Bordeaux
Must be made using copper still
Distinctly fruity-floral aromas
Med-light body with smooth alcohol
Must be aged in oak before bottling
Describe Armagnac:
Oak-aged grape brandy from South of Bordeaux
Most made from column still
Low strength spirit quite harsh full of character
Dried fruit aromas
med/full bodied
Must be aged in oak before bottling
What are the aging levels for Cognac and Armagnac?
VS: Very special
VSOP: very special old pale
XO: Extra Old (Napolean)
Name Spanish Brandies:
Generally deep color, full bodied, med sweetness (added sugar), dried fruit and sweet spice
Brandy de Jerez major area
What is Marc or Grappa?
Spirits made by distilling grapeskins or residue left over from fermentation.
Describe Whiskey character and production process:
Oak aged spirits made from grains (barley, maize, and rye)
Grains contain starch rather than sugar
Conversion of starch into fermentable sugars takes place after starch has been extracted from the ground grains using hot water. Same process as beer. Whisky = distilled beer but contains no hops
Describe Scotch Whisky
Must be distilled in Scotland and aged oak casks in Scotland for at least 3 years. Age statement on bottle indicates age of youngest component.
What is Malt Whisky?
Made using only malted barley - allowed to germinate to begin conversion of starch into sugar. germ interuppted by drying barley in kiln. peat used as fuel. Distillation must take place in copper pot stills.
What is single malt whisky?
Malt whisky from single distillery. Styles vary depending on amt of peat, water used, type of cask and length of maturation
What is blended Scotch Whisky?
Blend of malt and grain whisky
Grain whisky made in column still using combination of malted barley and other grains.
Best have smooth spirit flavor and well balance
Compared to single malt, spirit less harsh off still, less flavor, less need to age
What is Irish Whisky?
Generally made from mixture of malted and unmalted barley

Usually unpeated
Combo of pot and column still
Smooth, soft, mellow with fruity, honey, floral, woody flavors
Describe American Whiskies:
Bourbon: Made using mix of grains (usually maize), combo pot and column still. character comes from charred barrels
Tennessee Whisky: similar to Bourbon process but filtered through maple wood charcoal before bottling
Canadian: mostly large volume inexpensive
Describe types of Rum:
Base material is molasses, diluted with water - ferm - distilled (most in columns)
Golden: Oak aging
Dark: Color comes from caramel
Describe Tequila:
Made from Blue Agave - succulent not cactus must come from Mexico

Plata (Silver/White): most pure
Golden: unaged, color with caramel
Reposado/Anejo: softened by oak aging
Describe Vodka:
Any fermentable material can be used as base but mostly grapes, potatoes, barley, wheat, rye
Spirit distilled to such a high strength that little of base character left (column still)
Filtered through charcoal to remove flavor and impurities
40% ABV
Describe Gin:
Dry white spirit flavored with range of botanicals - mostly juniper but coriander, angelica and citrus peel
Cold compounding is addition of flavor essensces
Distilled Gin or London Dry Gin means superior method used to add flavor
What is Pastis?
Spirit flavored with combo of herbs and spices with anise dominating - Absinthe, Ouzo, Bitters
What is a liquer?
Sweetened liquid that contains a portion of distilled spirit
Real fruits vs. flavorings will be dry and higher in alcohol
Blackcurrant: Creme de Cassis
Cherry: Heering
Orange: Curacao
Peach: Southern Comfort

Multi herb: Galliano, Benedictine, Chartreuse, Drambuie
Seed: Kummel

Egg: Advocaat
What are guidelines for storing wine?
10-15 celcius
on side
away from strong light
away from vibrations
What are service temperatures of wines based on style?
Med/full bodied oaked white: lightly chilled 12 c
Lt/med bodied white: 10c
Sweet wines: 6-8c
Sparkling: 6-8c
Light bodied red: 12c
Med/full bodied red: 17-18c

Ice bucket 3/4 full with equal ice and water
How many glasses can you get from a standard 75cl bottle?
6 standard: 125ml
4 generous: 175ml
3 large: 250ml
What is the BAC limit in US?
What is the amount of pure ethanol alcohol in a standard drink?
8-14g (14g in USA)
What are the WHO general guidelines for drinks per day:
women: 2
men: 3
not more than 4 per occassion
What is the marketing regulatory body in the US?
Beer Institure and DISCUS Code
Federal Alcohol Administration Act: athletes can't be used
What are health benefits of moderate drinking?
cardio vasc disease reduced by 30%
thins blood
HDL - good cholesterol