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132 Cards in this Set

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Date: Reign of Philip II

359-336 B.C.

Date: Battle of Chaerona; Philip II Conquers Greece

338 B.C.

Date: Reign of Alexander the Great

336-323 B.C.E.

Date: Alexander Invades Asia; Battle of Granicus River

334 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of Issus

333 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of Guagemala

331 B.C.E.

Date: Fall of Persepolis, Persian Capital

330 B.C.E.

Date: Alexander Enters India

327 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of the Hydaspes River

326 B.C.E.

Date: Death of Alexander

323 B.C.E.

Macedonian army was a _________ army under Philip, made up of _____, and paid using _____ ______.

Professional, Macedonian Countrymen, Gold Mines

Demosthenes delivered a series of orations known as the...

Philippics

Isocrates viewed Phillip as...

A savior who would rescue the Greeks from themselves.

Macedonia united Greek States around Macedonian rule into something called..

The Corinthian League

How old was Alexander when he became king?

20


After his father's assassination, Alexander moved quickly to ______ his _______, securing Macedonian ___________ and smothering a rebellion in __________ by sacking _______.

Assert,


Authority,


Frontiers,


Greece,


Thrace

Battle of Granicus lead to...

Liberation of Ionian City-States by Alexander.

Battle of Issus was fought with...

Fought with King Darius, who fleed the battlefield.

T/F Egypt fought bitterly with Alexander to maintain control of its kingdom.

False.

After Guagemala...

Alexander entered Babylon and then conquered the Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis.

Alexander's troops refused to go on after the Battle of...

Hydaspes.

Alexander died from:

Wounds, fever, and probably excessive alcohol.

How do historians explain Alexander's success?

1. His superb tactical skills.


2. Pushed troops extremely hard,


3. Maintained a personal interest in his men.


4. Paid attention to details.


5. Used technology.

Four Hellenistic Monarchies:

1. Antigonid/Macedonia


2. Seleucid


3. Pergamum


4. Ptolemaic

Megasthenes

Seleucid ambassador who reported on people of India.

Date: Early Iron Age

800-500 B.C.E.

Brennus

Celtic General who ravaged Macedonia and Greece.

Attalus I

Greek General who bested Celts in Asia Minor, before declaring himself King.

Ruling Class of Hellenistic Monarchies were made up of

Greeks and Macedonians

Alexandria was the ___________ city in the _________ region by the first century B.C.E.

Largest, Mediterranean

T/F New products and manufacturing methods were introduced in the Hellenistic Period

False

Gymnasium

A secondary school—(previously an athletic institution.)

Menander

Athenian Playwright who started making plays only to entertain and amuse. (New Comedy)

Polybius

Chief historian of the Hellenistic age, who wrote fort books narrating the history of the "inhabited Mediterranean World"

Aristarchus of Samos

Astronomer, developed Heliocentric view of the universe.

Eratosthenes

Determined that the earth was round, and calculated earth's circumference.

Archimedes

Most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Period. Especially important for his work on geometry, and establishing pi.

Hippocrates

First to separate medicine from philosophy, by stressing natural explanation and natural cures for disease.

Herophilus and Erasistratus

Well-known physicians in Alexandria who practiced dissection and vivisection.

Epicureanism

Doctrine of pleasure—happiness goal of life.

Stoicism

Happiness could only be found in virtue, which meant living in harmony with divine will.

Zeno

Founder of Stoicism

Mystery Religions

Salvation-focused cults.

Syncretism

Combination of all religions into one.

Italy divided in two by the...

Apenine Mountains

T/F: Greeks had considerable influence on Rome.

True.

Date: First secession of the plebeians; creation of tribunes of the plebs.

494 B.C.E.

Date: Creation of the council of the plebs

471 B.C.E.

Date: Publication of the Twelve Tables of Law

450 B.C.E.

Date: Intermarriage allowed; Canuleian law

445 B.C.E.

Date: Consulship opened to plebeians

300s B.C.E.

Date: Plebeian assembly laws binding on all Romans; Hortensian Law

287 B.C.E.

T/F Toga was an Etruscan dress.

True

Imperium

The right to command. Executive authority.

Consul

Administered the government and led the Roman army into battle.

Praetor

Primary function execution of justice, in charge of civil law. Could govern Rome and lead armies when Consuls are away.

Dictator

Ruler with unlimited power, meant to last only for an emergency.

Quaestor

Assisted consuls and praetors in the administration of financial affairs.

Aediles

Supervised public games and watched over the grain supplie of the city.

Senate

Council of elders; a select group of about 300 men who served for life.

Centuriate Assembly

The Roman army functioning in its political role. Organized by classes based on wealth.

Paterfamilias

Concept of the father having unlimited power over his family.

Gentes

Clans

Praenomen

Forename

Nomen

Following praenomen, the name of the group of families or clan to which the person belonged.

Cognomen

An extra personal name, following Nomen.

Patricians

Aristocratic Governing Class

Plebeians

Unprivileged lower class.

Two major problems that fueled Struggle of the Orders

1. Only patricians could be elected to office.


2. No intermarriage.

Tribunes of the Plebs

Given the power to protect plebeians against arrest by Patrician magistrates.

Council of the Plebs

Popular assembly for plebeians only.

Plebiscita

"It is the opinion of the plebs."

Twelve tables of Law

1. Legal procedures for going to court,


2. Provisions on family, women, and divorce


3. Regulations concerning private property,


4. Rules governing relationships and injuries to others,


5. Prohibiting intermarriage.

Canuleian Law

Allowed intermarriage.

Hortensian Law

All plebiscita passed had the force of law and were binding on the entire community.

Nobiles

Select number of wealthy patrician and plebeian families.

King Pyrrhus of Epirus

Won two battles fought with Romans for the Greeks, before losing.

Date: First Punic War

261-241 B.C.E.

Date: Second Punic War

218-201 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of Cannae

216 B.C.E.

Date: Scipio seizes Spain

206 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of Zama

202 B.C.E.

Date: Third Punic War

149-146 B.C.E.

Date: Macedonia incorporated as Roman Province

148 B.C.E.

Date: Destruction of Carthage

146 B.C.E.

Date: Roman Acquisition of Pergamum

133 B.C.E.

Three Stages of how Rome's Empire was Built

1. The Conquest of Italy


2. Conflict with Carthage and expansion into Western Mediterranean


3. Domination of Hellenistic Kingdoms in Eastern Mediterranean.

Hastati

Youngest recruits, formed the front line, armed with heavy spears and short swords.

Principes

Armed and protected like the hastati, formed the second line.

Triarii

Knelt behind the first two lines, ready to move up and fill gaps.

Augurs

Interpreted the auspices.

Auspices

Signs or warnings that the gods gave to men, through the weather, or migratory pattern changes.

Rhetoric

The art of persuasive speaking.

Latifundia

Large-landed estates, worked by slaves.

Spartacus

Lead slave rebellion in 73 B.C.E.

Cum Manu

After marriage, legal control passes from father to husband.

Sine Manu

Married daughters officially remained within the father's legal power.

ius civile

Civil Law

ius gentum

Law of Nations

Plautus

Famous Roman playwright who used plots from Greek New Comedy for his own plays.

Terence

Carthaginian slave, turned free, became playwright.

Mos maiorum

Customs and traditions of ancestors.

Pietas

The highest virtue—the dutiful execution of one's obligations to one's fellow citizens, to the gods, and to the state.

Novus Homo

New Man

Optimates

"The best men," tended to be nobiles who wished to maintain oligarchical privileges.

Populares

"Favoring the people," were ambitious aristocrats who used people's assemblies, especially the council of the plebs, as instruments to break the domination of the optimates.

Equestrians

Once formed Rome's cavalry.

Gracchus Reforms

Pushed to reclaim public land from large landowners and distribute it to landless Romans.

Marius

Consul who ran to "Win the War," initiated military reforms to allow generals to recruit volunteers who weren't landowners.

Italian or Social War

Fought between Rome, and allies disenchanted with lack of plunder.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Nobile who forced Senate to grant him title of dictator. Revised constitution to restore power to the Senate—eliminating power of popular assemblies.

Date: Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus

133 B.C.E.

Date: Reforms of Gaius Gracchus

123-122 B.C.E.

Date: Marius's consecutive consulships.

104-100 B.C.E.

Date: Italian or Social War

90-88 B.C.E.

Date: Sulla as dictator

82-79 B.C.E.

Date: Pompey's command in Spain

77-71 B.C.E.

Date: Consulship of Crassus and Pompey

70 B.C.E.

Date: First Triumvirate

60 B.C.E.

Date: Caesar in gaul

59-49 B.C.E.

Date: Crassus and Pompey as Consuls

55 B.C.E.

Date: Crassus Killed in Battle

53 B.C.E.

Date: Caesar Crosses the Rubicon

49 B.C.E.

Date: Battle of Pharsalus; Pompey Killed in Egypt

48 B.C.E.

Date: Caesar as dictator

47-44 B.C.E.

Date: Assassination of Caesar

44 B.C.E.

Date: Second Triumvirate; Cicero Killed

43 B.C.E.

Date: Caesar's assassins defeated at Philippi

42 B.C.E.

Date: Octavian defeats Antony at Actium

31 B.C.E.

Catullus

Great Roman writer and poet, mastered displaying emotion in writing.

Lucretius

Important poet in Late Republic who followed an old Greek tradition of expounding philosophy in the form of poetry.

Sallust

Best-known historian of the Late Republic. Believed moral degeneration to be a cause of Rome's downfall.