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12 Cards in this Set

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2-1
Why are psychologists concerned with human biology?
-Human biology is the area of science concerned with what your body is made of and how your body works.
- Psychology is the science of the mind and behavior.
-The brain is the mind and therefore is an essential component that links biology and psychology.
-The smallest component of biology, cells, form larger systems of organs, that form an individual-the individuals culture, community, emotions, are the foundation of psychology.
2-2
What are neurons, and how do they transmit information?
-Neurons are nerve cells, the basic building block of the nervous system that transmit messages when stimulated by signals from senses or triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons.
-Composed of a cell body with DENDRITES that receive messages from other cells, AXON that passes the signal to other neurons, muscles, or glands through NEURAL IMPULSE (action potential) to the TERMINAL BRANCHES that form junctions with other cells.
2-3
How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells?
-The separation between two neurons is called the SYNAPTIC GAP, during action potential, a chemical messenger is released called NEUROTRANSMITTERS; which cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites at the receiving neuron.
2-4
How do neurotransmitters influence behavior, and how do drugs and other chemicals influence neurotransmitters?
-Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that link 2 neurons,
-Particular brain pathways have certain neurotransmitters that affect specific behaviors and emotions.
-There are neurotransmitters identified that control specific functions of the body, neutrotranmitter molecules are release by specific neurotransmitters in the brain responsible for specific aspects of our behavior, control our emotions, and influence our behavior. Drugs and other chemical are designed, when released into the body to bind to specific neurotransmitters to either promote or inhibit the transmission of those receptors, controlling the desired outcome. When drugs artificially influence neurotransmitters numerous times, the body natural response is to stop enabling that neurotransmitter on its own.
2-5
What are the functions of the nervous system's main divisions, and what are the three main types of neurons?
-The Central Nervous System, composed of the brain and spinal cord is the body's decision maker.
-The peripheral nervous system, receives and sends messages to and from the CNS.
-Nerves-link the CNS and PNS
-Sensory neurons carry information to the CNS
-Motor neurons carry information from the CNS
-Inter neurons control the brains intercommunication
2-6
How does the endocrine system transmit information and interact with the nervous system?
-The endocrine system releases hormones which act on the brain affecting affecting emotion, appetite, sexual desire, etc.
-Both the nervous system and endocrine system both produce molecules that travel throughout the body and act on receptors.
-When an action or reaction is triggered by the brain, it signals the pituitary gland, which triggers other glands, which cause a reaction, and trigger the brain; which triggers a nervous system reaction.
2-7
How do neuroscientists study the brain's connections to behavior and mind?
-Electroencephalogram- reads electrical waves stimulated by brain activity-able to monitor changes in that electrical activity
-Positron Emission Tomography(PET)-Shows brain activity by tracking glucose (brains fuel)-Able to identify influxes of glucose supply to parts of the brain, identifying neurons that are stimulated and requiring fuel.
These tools, along with discovering areas of the brain that control what human activities, help neuroscientists study the brains connection to behavior and mind.
-Magetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Uses atom manipulation to capture a detailed image of soft tissue of the brain.-Has revealed enalarged ventricles with psychological orders.
-FMRI-Takes multiple shots revealing the brains action.-Reveals when, where, and at what rate blood flows to certain areas of the brain during certain activities.
2-8
What structures make up the brain stem, and what are the functions of the brain stem, thalamus, and cerebellum?
-Brainstem contains the medulla; responsible for heart and respiration. Thalamus-controls all senses except smell, sends and receives signals from the brain relating the senses. Reticular formation-filters certain signals to/from the brain, responsible for arousal.
Cerebellum-"little brain is responsible for memory, non verbal learning, perception of time, emotions, identifies sound and textures, voluntary movement, balance, and coordination.
2-9
What are the limbic system's structures and functions?
-The lymbic system contains the amygdala-related to aggression and fear; the hypothalamus-hunger, thirst, body temp, and sexual desire; and the hippocampus-responsible for processing conscious memory.
2-10
What are the functions of the various cerebral cortex systems?
-Glial cells-support the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, support the neurons by transimtting information, providing insulation and nutrition and insulate myelin.
-Motor cortex send messages out to the body causing body part movement
-Sensory cortex in front of the parietal lobe receives information
-Visual cortex from the occipital lobe in the back of the brain is responsible for transmitting and interpreting visual information.
-Auditory cortex in the temporal lobe processes sound.
-Association areas cover 3/4 of the brain and are responsible for higher mental functions; including stored memory, personality and inhibitions, mathematical and spacial reasoning.
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2-11
To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself, and what is neurogenesis?
-Plasticity occurs as a result of a damaged brain, where the brain modifies itself. This occurs when the brain develops a new pathway, to unused brain area. Examples are blind people having exceptional sense of touch as the brains natural compensation.
-Severed neurons do not regenerate and certain areas of the brains have specific functions that are disabled when damaged.
-Neurogenesis is the process by which the brain produces new brain cells.
2-12
What do split brains reveal about the functions of our two hemispheres?
-Both hemisphere's an function independently, but are co-dependent to function normally. We have unified brains with specialized parts. If an object is shown to a split brain patient's right hemisphere, he cannot say/identify the object, but when asked to grab the object out of a pile, the left brain will register the information and the individual will grab the correct item, without making the decision consciously.