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88 Cards in this Set

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Define Oculars
Magnifying lenses that are the closest ot your eye. Usual magnification is 10x.
Define Objective Lenses
Magnifying lenses that are the closest to the specimen. Can be changed to increase magnification.
Define: Arm
You carry the microscope by this part.
Define condenser
Focuses the light into the objectives. Adjustment can change contrast.
Define Iris diaphragm
Controls the diameter of the light beam.
Define Rheostat
Controls the intensity of the illumination.
Define Coarse adjustment knob
Focues the image. Can move the stage quickly a long distance.
Define fine adjustment knob
Focuses the image. Moves the stage in very small increments.
Define Stage
Platform for holding the slide
Why must oil be cleaned off the oil immersion lens before it dries?
The oil can degrade the glue that holds the lens in place.
Why can't you use oil with any other objective other than the oil immersion objective?
Only the oil immersion lens has a protective seal that prevents oil from leaking into the objective.
How do you calculate the degree of magnification?
Multipy the magnification of the ocular by the magnification of the objective.
If you are viewing cells through a 40x objective, what is the degree of magnification at which you are seeing the cells?
400
Which focuse knob can you use with oil immersion? (coarse, fine, both)
Fine.
How does the apparent orientation of the letter E change when viewed through the microscope?
It is upside down.
When you move the slide away from you, in which direction does the letter "e" move?
towards you.
As you change to a higher power objective, do you have to increase or decrease the illumination?
Decrease.
As you move to a higher power objective, does the field size become larger or smaller?
Smaller.
1. Circle the following that are essential criteria for clinical laboratories in veterinary hospitals.
a. Electrical outlets for machines
b. Storage space for materials and supplies
c. Suitable space for food and drinks while working
d. A sink and running water
e. A specific dedicated area for laboratory work
f. A radio or television for pleasant diversions while doing boring lab work
g. All the statements are true.
A,B,D,E
2. Circle the following that are correct statements concerning electronic blood cell counters.
a. An impedance counter counts cells by measuring the cell’s ability to alter electronic resistance as the cells pass through a small aperture.
b. Darkfield illumination counters measure cell numbers by detecting light diffraction as a cell passes through a light beam.
c. Multifunctional instruments combine either impedance or darkfield illumination counters with photometric capability to determine hemoglobin concentration.
d. As a general rule, electronic cell counters provide a fast, reliable, and accurate measurement of blood cells.
e. Electronic cell counters may have problems due to improper operation, quality control, and electrical and mechanical malfunctions.
f. When leukocyte counts or platelet counts are performed, water must be added to the blood to produce a diluted solution for the cell counter.
g. Electronic blood cell counters are sophisticated and delicate instruments and the manufacturer’s recommendations on daily cleaning, maintenance, and quality control should be exactly and carefully followed.
h. All the statements are true.
H
3. Circle the following statements concerning quality control that are true.
a. One of the most important job responsibilities of any veterinary technician is ensuring quality control in all aspects of the practice.
b. Control serum consists of a single, precise sample of freeze-dried serum from dogs or cats that must be thawed and rehydrated before use.
c. Assayed control serum has been analyzed just once using a precise machine to determine the circulating level of a single major blood constituent.
d. Control serum may be obtained from the serum of several healthy animals from your own hospital.
e. A blank sample contains all the reagents used in the assay of blood parameters, except for the patient specimen.
f. A standard is a solution containing an unknown amount of a body constituent that must be analyzed to obtain a body normal value.
g. All the statements are true.
h. None of the statements are true.
A, B, D
4. Circle the true statements concerning laboratory records.
a. Internal records are those in which the laboratory logs assay results and the methods by which the results are obtained.
b. Quality-control records are essential; they document the reliability of assay results and identify results that may be inaccurate.
c. External records are those by which laboratory personnel communicate with people throughout the veterinary practice and in other laboratories.
d. There should be complete information recorded on all samples being shipped to laboratories, samples analyzed in the practice, or data entered into the patient’s chart.
e. All the statements are true.
f. None of the statements are true
E
List the formed elements (cellular components) of blood.
Red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), platelets (thrombocytes).
List the formed elements of plasma.
electrolytes, hormones, nutrients, and drugs.
Define Postprandial Lipemia.
Fat from digested food suspended in the plasma. Seen in samples drawn soon after an animal has eaten.
Describe the composition of blood plasma.
About 93 % water. Proteines (albumin, globulins, fibrinogens) are majority of substances in it. Gasses – oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Lipids, amino acids, metabolic wastes, and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions.
Describe the composition of blood serum.
Whole blood minus the cells and clotting elements.
What type of tissue is blood?
Connective.
Are the clotting factors present in plasma or serum?
Plasma
7. What is one of the most common causes of hemoconcentration and how can it affect blood cell counts?
Dehydration. Counts will be increased in the sample.
How do you calculate the blood volume of an animal?
50 – 100 ml (ave 75) x lean body weight (kg)
8. How do you calculate the maximum safe amount of blood you can draw from an animal without causing problems?
? Loss of 25% of total blood volume gives 50/50 chance of survival. Find total blood volume (75ml x kg. Then total blood volume x .25.
Where is blood stored in an animal at rest?
Spleen.
How does this blood return to circulation?
The spleen contracts.
What is the buffy coat?
After blood is centrifuged, the layer of leukocytes between the red blood cells and the plasma.
Blood is a mixture of what 2 things
A) Cells
B) Neurons
C) Myofibers
D) Plasma
E) Endocytes
F) a and d
F
The “oil immersion” lens is
A) 4 X
B) 10 X
C) 40 X
D) 100 X
D
The instrument used to determine the specific gravity of fluids and the protein concentration of plasma is;
A) Centrifuge
B) Incubator, microhematocrit
C) Cell counter
D) Refractometer
D
Any type of paper can be used to clean the senses and eyepieces.
A) True
B) False
B
The “high-dry” objective lens is
A) 4 X
B) 10 X
C) 40 X
D) 100 X
C
All formed elements of the blood are derived from:
A) Megakaryocyte
B) Myelocyte
C) Hematopoietic stem cell
D) Proerythroblast
C
Plasma contains
A) Blood cells
B) Electrolytes
C) Nutrients and Vitamins
D) Hormones
E) B,C and D
E
The formed elements of blood include
A) RBCs
B) Plasma
C) WBCs
D) Platelets
E) Leukocytes
F) a, c, d, and e
F
The functions of blood include the transport of
A) Electrolytes
B) Hormones
C) Antibodies
D) Oxygen
E) Waste products
F) All of the above
F
Erythropoeisis is the process of ____________ formation.
A) Platelets
B) Leukocytes
C) RBCs
D) Erythrocytes
E) c and d
E
Differential WBC counts should always be expressed as absolute numbers of each individual type of cell.
A) True
B) False
A
Nucleated RBCs are counted when performing total WBC counts; therefore, corrected WBC calculations must be performed to achieve the correct number of leukocytes.
A) True
B) False
A
The process by which the WBCs engulf and digest bacteria is called
A) Diapedesis
B) Chemotaxis
C) Phagocytosis
D) Cytocytosis
C
The neutrophils and monocytes are attracted to certain chemicals produced by the immune system or by bacteria by a process called:
A) Diapedesis
B) Chemotaxis
C) Phagocytosis
D) Cytocytos
B
Lymphocyte
This cell has a scant amount of blue cytoplasm and a large, dark blue staining nucleus, and may be seen in large or small forms.
Basophil
This cell has very prominent dark blue-black to purple cytoplasmic granules, with a nucleus that is bean shaped to variable in shape.
Band cell
This cell has a pale blue cytoplasm and a horseshoe or “U” shaped nucleus. It may have fine granules visible in the cytoplasm.
Eosinophil
This cell has prominent reddish to orange-red granules, with a somewhat segmented nucleus.
Neutrophil
The nucleus of this cell is segmented and has two to five segments held together by thin stands of nuclear material. The cytoplasm is usually pale blue in color and may have fine granules or inclusions present
Monocyte
This is the largest of the leukocytes. It has a pale blue cytoplasm and a variably shaped nucleus, and may have vacuoles or cytoplasmic inclusions. Once out of circulation, this leukocyte may become a wandering macrophage.
Neutrophils are also called
A) PMN
B) WBC
C) Macrophage
D) Segs
E) All of the above
F) a, b, and d
F
The 2 WBCs that have a role in allergic reactions are
A) Eosinophils and basophils
B) Monocytes and macrophages
C) Eosinophils and macrophages
D) Basophils and macrophages
A
The primary functions of white blood cells is to
A) Carry oxygen to the tissues
B) Fight infections
C) Ingest dead cells
D) Protect against microbes
E) b, c, and d
E
In a normal animal the most prevalent WBC in the blood is
A) Basophil
B) Monocyte
C) Lymphocyte
D) Eosinophil
E) Neutrophil
E
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are also called
A) Thrombocytes
B) Macrophages
C) Agranulocytes
D) granulocytes
D
In a normal animal the smallest number of WBC in the blood is
A) Basophil
B) Lymphocyte
C) Erythrocyte
D) Neutrophil
E) Thrombocyte
A
The process by which neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through openings in blood vessels is called:
A) Diapedesis
B) Chemotaxis
C) Phagocytosis
D) Cytocytos
A
In an infection you will see an _____________ in the number of ____________.
A) Increase, neutrophils
B) Decrease, neutrophils
C) Increase, mast cells
D) Increase, basophils
A
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are also called
A) Thrombocytes
B) Macrophages
C) Agranulocytes
D) granulocytes
D
In a normal animal the smallest number of WBC in the blood is
A) Basophil
B) Lymphocyte
C) Erythrocyte
D) Neutrophil
E) Thrombocyte
A
The process by which neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through openings in blood vessels is called:
A) Diapedesis
B) Chemotaxis
C) Phagocytosis
D) Cytocytos
A
The 2 WBCs that have a role in allergic reactions are
A) Eosinophils and basophils
B) Monocytes and macrophages
C) Eosinophils and macrophages
D) Basophils and macrophages
A
In a normal animal the most prevalent WBC in the blood is
A) Basophil
B) Monocyte
C) Lymphocyte
D) Eosinophil
E) Neutrophil
E
A complete blood count (CBC) includes all except
A) RBC count
B) Specific gravity
C) WBC count
D) Platelet count
E) Differential blood count
B
The blood cells which secrete heparin and histamine and are known as
A) Thrombocytes
B) Macrophages
C) Neutrophils
D) Lymphocytes
E) Basophils
E
. List the components of the CBC.
Total RBC count, PCV, Plasma protein concentration, total WBC count, blood film examination: differential WBC count, erythrocyte and leukocyte morphology, platelet estimation. Reticulocyte count when the patine is anemic, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte indices.
What cells are counted for a CBC.
Erythrocytes and leukocytes.
What is a hemocytometer and what is it used for?
They are counting chambers that are used for manually counting RBCs and WBCs.
What is the Unopette system used for? How is it used with the hemocytometer?
To prepare the blood sample with the proper amount of diluents to be read in the hemocytometer. The appropriate amount of blood is added to the diluents and after 10 mins the reservoir is inverted several times to mix cells evenly and is converted into a dropper assembly.
Define PCV. What other names are used for this? What information does this give you?
Packed Cell volume, microhematocrit: the percentage of whole blood composed of erythrocytes.
What is a refractometer used for?
Measuring the serum or plasma protein level and also the specific gravity of urine.
Circle the true statements about the packed cell volume (PCV).
a. The buffy coat layer of a PCV contains leukocytes, platelets, and nucleated erythrocytes.
b. RBCs have the lowest specific gravity and therefore are found on the bottom of the hematocrit tube.
c. PCVs are usually performed using microhematocrit tube and centrifuged for about 5 minutes to determine the correct value.
d. Failure to properly plug the end of the microhematocrit tube with clay can lead to a really big mess in the centrifuge.
e. PCVs are usually read on a hematocrit reader, and the value is usually reported as a percentage of RBCs.
f. The plasma fraction of the PCV should always be examined, and any abnormalities in color should be reported.
g. All the statements are true.
h. None of the statements are true
g
. Indicate which of the following would NOT be a part of a complete blood cell count.
a. Differential leukocyte count
b. Plasma protein concentration
c. Erythrocyte morphology
d. Precursor determination
e. Erythrocytic indices
f. Hemoglobin concentration
g. Serum osmolality
h. Packed cell volume
i. Total leukocyte count
j. Platelet estimation
k. Thrombocyte morphology
d,g,j
Indicate which of the following would NOT be determined from a blood film.
a. Estimate of platelet numbers
b. Estimate of erythrocyte concentration
c. WBC morphology
d. RBC morphology
e. Estimate of WBC concentration
b
True of false: The three erythrocytic indices that are commonly reported on CBCs are the MCV, the MCH, and the MCHC
true
true or false: The erythrocytic indices are important to calculate and report because they can give insight into the type and cause of certain anemias.
true.
____________ play an important role in hemostasis and blood clotting.
A) Thrombocytes
B) Macrophages
C) Neutrophils
D) Lymphocytes
E) Eosinophils
a
Another name for white blood cells is
A) Erythrocytes
B) Thrombocytes
C) Purkenjecytes
D) Leukocytes
E) None of the above
d
With kidney failure an animal is likely to become
A) Anemic
B) Infectious
C) Jaundiced
D) Icteric
a
The platelet count is useful in diagnosing and monitoring
A) Bleeding
B) Clotting disorders
C) Oxygen content of the blood
D) Infections
E) a and b
e
A reticulocyte is a young
A) Leukocyte
B) Erythrocyte
C) Thrombocyte
D) macrophage
b
In a normal animal the smallest number of WBC in the blood is
A) Basophil
B) Lymphocyte
C) Erythrocyte
D) Neutrophil
E) Thrombocyte
a
The function of the ____________ is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
A) Platelets
B) Leukocytes
C) RBCs
D) Erythrocytes
E) c and d
e