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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Canine Vertebrae Formula
Cervical 7
Thoracic 13
Lumbar 7
Sacral 3
Caudal 20 - 24
Equine Vertebrae Formula
Cervical 7
Thoracic 18
Lumbar 6
Sacral 5
Caudal 15 - 21
Bovine Vertebrae Formula
Cervical 7
Thoracic 13
Lumbar 6
Sacral 5
Caudal 18 - 20
Hypaxial Muscle
Muscles located ventral to the transverse processes and include muscles of the abdominal and thoracic wall

Action: Flex the vertebral column
Epaxial Muscle
Muscles that lie dorsal to the transverse process of the vertebrae.

Actions: Extend the vertebrae column
Hypaxial Muscles of the Neck
longus capitis
longus colli
Hypaxial Muscles of the Thoracic wall
serratus ventralis
serratus dorsalis (cn/cd)
external intercostal
internal intercostal
Hypaxial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
linea alba
external abdominal oblique
inguinal ligament
internal abdominal oblique
transversus abdominis
rectus abdominis
Hypaxial Muscles of the Inguinal Canal
superficial inguinal ring
deep inguinal ring
vaginal process (female)
vaginal tunics (of vaginal process) covering spermatic cord (male)
Epaxial Muscle systems (3)
iliocostalis system
longissimus system
transversospinalis system
Iliocostalis system
iliocostalis lumborum
iliocostalis thoracis
Longissimus system
longissimus thoracis et lumborum
longissimus cervicis
longissimus capitis
Transversospinalis system
semispinalis capitis
biventer cervicis
supraspinous ligament
nuchal ligament