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122 Cards in this Set

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Fireground Ventilation Defintion

The systematic removal of heated air, smoke, and fire gases from a burning building and replacing them with cooler air

Life Safety:


Increases Firefighter _______ by ________ the interior temperature and _______ visibility.

safety


reducing


increasing

Life safety:


Reduces the chance of firefighters receiving _______ ________ when the water is applied to the fire by providing an _______ path for the _____ when water is ________

Steam burns


escape


steam


vaporized

Life safety:


________ and ________ search and rescue operations by removing ______ and ______ that endanger trapped or unconscious patients.

simplifies


expedites


smoke


gases

Fire Attack and Extinguishment:


Permits firefighters to more rapidly ______ the fire and proceed with _________ when effective ventilation improves the ______ inside a burning building

locate


extinguishment


visibilty

when the ventilation opening is made in the upper portion of a building , a ________ effect occurs.

Chimney


If the opening is made directly over a fire, it tends to _______ the fire.
Localize

If the opening is made away from the fire, it may contribute to fire _____ by drawing the fire through __________ areas toward the ventilation opening.

spread


uninvolved

ventilation must be closely coordinated with ______ attack

Fire

Fire spread control:


Effective ventilation:


-________ the rate of smoke layer development.


-can reduce the process of smoke layer development by ________ more smoke from the structure than the fire is producing


-reduces the rate at which fire will spread over an area by providing an ______ path for the rising heated gases


reduces


exhausting


escape

Fire spread control:


even with proper ventilation, if the fire is not __________ soon after ventilation is completed, the __________ supply of fresh air will _____ the fire and allow it to ______ and spread into attic and concealed spaces

extinguished


increased


feed


grow

Fire spread control:


Ventilation should occur only after _________ crews are ready to move in and attack the fire.

Hoseline

Reduction of Backdraft potential:


when a fire is _______ in a compartment and it does not break a window or burn through to the outside, the fire will ____ the oxygen level in the room until flaming ________ is no longer possible.

confined


reduce


combustion

Reduction of backdraft potential:


If an ____ supply is introduced by firefighters opening doors or windows, a violent _______ occurs.


Air


Backdraft

To prevent backdraft conditions from developing, carefully controlled _________ must be provided.

Ventilation

In most cases, the safest way to vent a building with backdraft potential is _________

Vertically

Signs of a potential backdraft: (6)

- Confinement and excessive heat


- Smoke-stained Windows


- Smoke puffing at intervals from the building


- Pressurized smoke coming from all cracks


- little visible flame from the exterior of the building


- Black smoke becoming dense gray-yellow

Rapid extinguishment of a fire reduces damage caused by _______, ________, and ______

water


heat


smoke


Timely and effective ________ helps ff extinguish interior fires ______ and more _________.

Ventilation


faster


efficiently

smoke may be removed from burning buildings by _________ or _______ means. Ventilation usually reduces _____ damage.

natural


mechanical


smoke

________ ventilation involves opening doors and windows to allow ______ air currents to move smoke and heat out of the building
Natural
natural

__________ ventilation involves the use of fans

Mechanical

when ______, ________ and ________ are removed from a burning building, the fire can be confined to a specific area.

Smoke


Gases


Heat

If there are sufficient personnel on scene, effective ________ operations can be initiated outside the immediate area of the fire even while fire control operations are being conducted.

salvage


The first consideration is safety of _______ and building ______, which includes ______, _______, and ___________.

Firefighters


occupants


people


pets


Livestock

life hazards in a burning building are generally lower if the occupants are ________

Awake

If occupants were asleep when the fire developed what are the 4 possibilities that must be considered.

-May have been overcome by smoke and gases



-May have become lost in the building.



-They may be alive and taking refuge in their rooms because their doors were closed



-Timely and effective ventilation will facilitate search and rescue operations

What are the 6 hazards from the accumulation of smoke and gases in a building?

- visual impairment caused by dense smoke


- presence of toxic gases


- lack of oxygen


- presence of flammable gases


- possibility of backdraft


- possibility of flashover

______ of the smoke increases with the amount of suspended particles

Density

What are the 4 attributes of smoke?

volume


velocity


density


color

what are the 8 gases found in smoke?

Carbon monoxide


Sulfer dioxide


Hydrogen fluoride


Hydrogen chloride


Hydrogen Cyanide


Aldehydes


Benzene


Acrolein



Smoke is _______

Fuel

In addition to the location of the fire within the building, The buildings _____, _____, and _____ must be considered in relation the the best ways to ventilate it.

Age


Type


Design

In a high rise building fire and smoke can spread quickly through pipe shafts, stairways, elevator shafts, air-handling systems, and other vertical and horizontal openings. These openings contribute to a ______ effect.

Stack

Hot smoke and fire gases travel ______ through a building until they reach the ____ of the building or they are _______ to the temp of the surrounding air.
upward
top
cooled

when equalization of temperature occurs, the smoke and fire gases stop rising and _____ within the building.

Stratify

after the stairwell of a high-rise is cleared of smoke a _____ fan should be placed ________ the door of the stairwell at ground level. ______ floors below the fire floor, an additional ___ should be placed in the occupants hallway directed into an open stairwell door, forcing air into the stairwell.

PPV


Outside


2


ppv

the goal is to _______ all stairwells in a high-rise.

Pressurize

windowless buildings usually require ________ ventilation.

Mechanical

______ arriving units must attempt to determine the size and extent of the fire as well as its location

first

opening the roof or existing roof openings for the purpose of allowing heated gases and smoke to escape to the atmosphere.

Vertical Ventilation

FF must understand the basic types and designs of _______

Roofs

The likelihood of roof collapse is affected by a variety of factors. (5)

Volume of Fire



How long the fire has been burning.



Type of construction.



Level of protection



Load on the roof

how do you ensure the roof is safe to operate on?

Sounding


Visual


Observation

when should the ladder company leave the roof?

as soon as their assignment is completed.

work with wind at _____ or _____ to provide protection while cutting the roof opening.

back


side

provide a second means of _____ for crews on the roof.

escape

ensure the main ________ supports are not cut while creating a ventilation opening.

structural

________ the opening to prevent personnel from falling into it

Guard

use _______, ____ ________, or other means to prevent personnel from sliding and falling off the roof.

lifelines


Roof ladders

ensure that all personnel on the roof are wearing full ____ including ______, and that they are breathing _____ air.

PPE


SCBA


SCBA

start power tool on the ______ to ensure operation but only saws equipped with ______ locks should be carried to the roof while still running.

ground


safety

make sure that the angle of the cut is not towards the _______

body

extend ladders at least ____ to ____ rungs above the roof line and secure the ladder.

3


5

when operating from aerial ladder platforms, the floor of the platform should be _____ with or slightly _____ roof level.

even


above

check the roof for structural integrity by ______ before stepping on it and continue _______ it throughout the operation. do not ______ on the roof.

Sounding


sounding


Jump

if super heated gases do not exit the opening, ensure that _______ are punched through to enhance ventilation.

ceilings

Warning signs of a roof: (4)

Melting asphalt



spongy roof



smoke coming through the roof coverings



fire coming from the roof

What is the part of the roof exposed to the weather?

Roof Coverings

Types of roof coverings: (6)
- wooden shakes or shingles
- imitation shakes or tiles made of molded metal or rubber
- composition shingles or roll roofing
- slate
- synthetic membrane
- built-up tar and gravel surface

types of existing roof openings

scuttle hatches


skylights


penthouse doors

roof commonly found on commercial, industrial, and apartment buildings

Flat roof

flat roofs typically support _____ ______, _____ ________, _______, and other obstructions that may interfere with ventilation operations.

water tanks


HVAC equipment


antennas

generally similar to construction of a floor assembly consisting of wooden, concrete, or metal bar joists covered with sheathing or decking.

structural part

may be sheets of plywood or OSB, planks butted together, or corrugated material.

decking

what is commonly covered with a layer of insulation and a waterproofing material and then mopped with hot asphalt roofing tar?

Decking

preferred tool when cutting into a flat roof?

Circular saw

optimal ventilation opening for commercial roof is?

8x8

what is one way to achieve the 8x8 cut?

7-9-8 or coffin cut

types of roofs (5)

Flat


Pitched


Arched


Concrete


Metal

most pitched-roof construction involves ______ or ________ that run from the ridge to the top of the outer wall at the eaves level.

rafters


trusses

preferred tool for sloped roofs with composition shingles?

Chain Saw

Optimal size cut for residential roofs are?

4x4

_______ roofs can span large open areas unsupported by pillars or post.

Arched

Arched roof is constructed using _______ trusses

Bowstring

arched roofs should only be vented using an _______

Aerial ladder

when venting a concrete roof how should you ventilate?

existing roof opening

Used to stop the spread of fire in a long, narrow structure.

Trench Ventilation.

Factors that can reduce the effectiveness of vertical ventilation. (7)

1. improper use of forced ventilation


2. indiscriminate window breaking.


3. fire streams directed into ventilation openings


4. interior barriers between the fire and vent openings


5. floored attic spaces of materials stored in the attic


6. burn-through of the roof, a floor, or a wall.


7. additional openings between the attack team and the upper opening.

The venting of heat, smoke, and gases through horizontal openings such as windows and doors.
horizontal ventilation .

_______ conditions must always be considered when setting up horizontal ventilation.

weather

_______ can either aid or hinder horizontal ventilation.

Wind

The side of the building the wind is striking

windward

opposite of windward

leeward

includes the building occupants and any uninvolved rooms or portions of the building

internal exposures

describes the oldest type of mechanical forced ventilation techniques using fans to develop artificial circulation or enhance natural ventilation to expel smoke from a structure.

NPV

with NPV fans are placed in ______, ______ , or ______ vent openings, to exhaust the smoke, heat,, and gases from inside the building to the exterior.

windoes


doors


roof

NPV; the fan should be positioned to exhaust in the ______ direction as the prevailing wind.

same

recirculation of smoke using NPV is called _____, and it reduces ventilation efficiency.

Churning

NPV; the flow of smoke and other gases to the exit opening should be kept as _____ as possible

straight.

________ pressure is much less efficient than _____

negative


PPV

forced ventilation technique that uses a high-volume fan to create a slightly higher pressure inside a building than that outside

PPV

as long as the pressure is ______ inside the building, the smoke within the building is forced through the _______ exit opening to the _____ pressure zone outside.

higher


ventilation


lower

the location where the PPV is set up is called the ______ _______

entry point

PPV; once the location is selected, an _____ opening must be created _______ the entry point

exit


opposite

PPV; The exit opening may be a ______ or ______

window


doorway

once the exit opening has been created a ______ is place ___ to ____ feet outside the open entry point so that the cone of air from the bow completely covers the doorway opening.

blower


4


10

to maintin positive pressure inside it is important that no other _____ doors or ______ are opened during the PPV operation
exterior
windows

by selectively opening and closing ______ doors and ______ windows, it is possible to pressurize one room or area at a time.

interior


exterior

Using PPV in a multistory building it is best to apply positive pressure at the________ point through the use of one or more blowers
Lowest
PPV requires good fire ground_____,________, & ________
Discipline
Coordination
Tactics
To ensure an effective PPV operation. Do 3 things.
Take advantage of existing work conditions.

Reduce the size of the area being pressurized to speed up the process by selectively opening and closing interior doors

Keep the size of the exit opening in proportion to the entry opening
An ______ structure is required for PPV
Intact
Uses the air movement created by a fog stream to help draw the products of combustion out of the fire.
Hydraulic ventilation.
During hydraulic ventilation a fog stream is set on a ______ pattern that will cover___ to___ percent of the window or door opening from which the smoke will be pushed out.
Wide
85
90
During hydraulic ventilation the nozzle tip should be placed at least___ ft back from the opening.
2
Type of chainsaw used
Stihl ms 460 rescue
Chainsaw equipped with ____in bar and _______ tipped chain
20
Carbide
Chainsaw best suited for_____ shingles on a________ roof
Asphalt
Pitched
Chainsaw equipped with Chain______.
Brake
________ chainsaws on each truck.
1
Type of circular saw used.
Husqvarna k960 or k970 (14in) circular saw.
Circular saw best suited for________ roofs and_______ entry
Flat
Forcible
________ circular saws on each ladder truck
2
12 inch______ ________ tipped blade.
Performs in all_____ products and_____ and______ over wood decking.
Disadvantage not intended to cut________.
Cutting depth____ inches.
Chopper carbide
Wood
Tar
Gravel
Metal
4
14 inch_______ _________ blade.
Good on_____ _______.
Great on______ steel or______ steel.
Disadvantage blade is _______ during use and not good for cutting ________.
Cutting depth____inches for a new blade.
Aluminum oxide
Sheet metal
Hardened or thick
Consumed
Wood
5
14 inch______ _______ blade
Great on______ ______
Good for______,______ _______, and________.
Disadvantage not good on______,_______ or________ steel.
Cutting depth___ inches
Piraya diamond
Sheet metal
Concrete, concrete block, asphalt
Wood, Hardened, or thick
5
14 inch______ ______ blade.
___directional.
Best for___ & _____ over______ decking.
Good for_____metal,______ & ______ _______.
Disadvantage slow to cut_____
Quote.. 9 words
D'ax multicut
Bi
Tar and Gravel over metal
Sheet, steel(up to 3/16), concrete block
Wood
Is good for everything, but not great for anything.
Length of the roof line all the way across.
Span
Length from eave to pitch
Run
Height from eave to pitch
Rise
Roof pitch chart is always_____ over______
Rise
Run