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14 Cards in this Set

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How do venodilators decrease pressure?
By increasing the lumen size
What are 2 nitrates used for venodilation?
1) Nitroglyceride (transcutaneous)
2) Isosorbide (oral)
What is the mechanism of action of nitrates?
Nitrates form NO (nitric oxide) in smooth muscle cells--> relaxation
What nitrate is a mixed dilator?
Nitroprusside (IV)
Why aren't nitrates used commonly in veterinary medicine?
Tolerance develops quickly-within 24 hours
What are 2 ways to avoid tolerance to nitrates?
1) Intermittent use
2) ACE inhibitors (mixed dilator) and hydralazine (arterial dilator)
What is the therapeutic use of venodilators (nitrates)?
Systemic venodilation in heart failure (pulmonary edema)
-Never as the sole drug
When is nitroglycerine used and how is it administered?
Transdermal use on emergency
-Can put on ear or abdomen, ear has less chance of affecting staff
When is isosorbide used?
Chronic use in refractory heart failure
True or false. Tolerance is an issue with nitroprusside.
False, not an issue with nitroprusside
What are 2 uses use of nitroprusside?
1) Short-term management of fulminant (sudden & severe) heart failure
2) Hypertensive crisis
*potent veno and arterial dilator
How long do nitroprussides remain in the system after IV injection?
Effect disappear 5 minutes after stopping drug
What are 2 side effects of nitroprusside?
1) *Hypotension
2) Cyanogen toxicity
Why do nitrates have to be administered in an IV drip with a special line or a foil cover?
Sensitive to light, heat and moisture