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25 Cards in this Set

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Menetrier's disease
Gastric hypertrophy with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, and increase in mucus cells.

Precancerous

Rugae of stomach are so hypertrophied that they look like brain gyri
Meinier's dz
disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree.

Tinnitus ON AND OFF (as opposed to schwannoma)

"Think of Reinier getting dizzy after drinking too much"
Friedreich ataxia sx are mimicked by what deficiency?
Vit B12 or Vit E
Vit B12 or Vit E
Anticholinergic sx
"Blind as a bat, mad as a hatter, red as a beet, hot as a hare, dry as a bone, the bowel and bladder lose their tone, and the heart runs alone."
stones, bones, abdominal groans, and psychiatric moans
primary hyperPTH

"Stones" refers to kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis, and diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia). These can ultimately lead to renal failure.
"Bones" refers to bone-related complications. The classic bone disease in hyperparathyroidism is osteitis fibrosa cystica, which results in pain and sometimes pathological fractures. Other bone diseases associated with hyperparathyroidism are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and arthritis.
"Abdominal groans" refers to gastrointestinal symptoms of constipation, indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Hypercalcemia can lead to peptic ulcers and acute pancreatitis. The peptic ulcers can be an effect of increased gastric acid secretion by hypercalcemia,[4] but may also be part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome of both hyperparathyroid neoplasia and a gastrinoma.
"Psychiatric moans" refers to effects on the central nervous system. Symptoms include lethargy, fatigue, depression, memory loss, psychosis, ataxia, delirium, and coma.
Elevated hCG is observed in what pathologic states?
hydatiform moles, choriocarcinoma, gestational trophoblastic tumors
Causes of increased AFP
"Increased Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein":

Intestinal obstruction
Multiple gestation/ Miscalculation of gestational age/ Myeloschisis
Spina bifida cystica
Anencephaly/ Abdominal wall defect/Ataxia telangiectasia
Fetal death
Placental abruption

Hepatocellular carcinoma
non-seminoma germ cell tumor
Causes of decreased AFP
Trisomy 21, Edwards (trisomy 18)
Branchial arch derivatives
When at the restaurant of the golden ARCHES, children tend to first CHEW (1), then SMILE (2), then SWALLOW STYLISHLY (3), or SIMPLY SWALLOW (4), and then SPEAK (6)

see pg 136
encapsulated bacteria
target cell associated pathology
HALT, said the hunter to its target

HbC, asplenia, liver disease, thalassemia
Heinz bodies associated pathology
G6PD AND alpha thal
Howell-Jones bodies
basophilic nuclear remnants found in RBCs

seen in patients with functional hyposplenia or asplenia
alternative to heparin in HIT
lepirudin, bivalirudin; directly inhibits thrombin
myelosuppression with MTX is reversible with what?
What about 5-FU myelosuppression?
leucovorin

thymidine
Antimetabolites and function
what phase do they work in?
MTX, 5-FU, 6-MP, 6-TG, Cytarabine

S phase
Which drug is used in child cancer?
Dactinomycin
distinguish multiple myeloma from waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
M spike = IgM (hyperviscosity sx); no lytic bone lesions
lipid lowering agents MOA
pic
Sx of TTP
"Follow Me To Real Nirvana"

fever, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal and neurologic problems

(hint: predominant neuro problems=TTP; whereas predominant renal problems = HUS)
carcinoma vs sarcoma
carcinoma: cancer of epithelial cell origin
sarcoma: mesenchymal cell origin
schistocytes suggest what findings?
microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (TTP, HUS, DIC, SLE, malignant hypertension) or mechanical damage (eg prosthetic valve)
CYP450 inducers and inhibitors
see pic
Atherosclerosis steps
see pic
HIV structure
see pic