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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Regular insulin
Short-acting insulin
Insulin lispro
Rapid-acting insulin
Insulin aspart
Rapid-acting insulin
Insulin glulisine
Rapid-acting insulin
NPH (Neutral protamine Hagedorn)
Intermediate acting insulin
Insulin glargine
Long-acting insulin
Insulin detemir
Long-acting insulin; contains fatty acid side chain
Pramlintide
Synthetic amylin analog
Delays gastric emptying, delays post-prandial glucagon secretion, improves satiety
Tolbutamide
1st generation sulfonylurea
Stimulates insulin release by blocking ATP-sensitive K+ channels, resulting in depolarization and Ca2+ influx
Produces a reduction in hepatic glucose production
Produces an increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity
Glyburide
2nd generation sulfonylurea
Stimulates insulin release by blocking ATP-sensitive K+ channels, resulting in depolarization and Ca2+ influx
Produces a reduction in hepatic glucose production
Produces an increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity
Glipizide
2nd generation sulfonylurea
Stimulates insulin release by blocking ATP-sensitive K+ channels, resulting in depolarization and Ca2+ influx
Produces a reduction in hepatic glucose production
Produces an increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity
Glimepiride
2nd generation sulfonylurea
Stimulates insulin release by blocking ATP-sensitive K+ channels, resulting in depolarization and Ca2+ influx
Produces a reduction in hepatic glucose production
Produces an increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity
Repaglinide
Meglitinide analogs
Bind to ATP-sensitive K+ channels and leads to insulin release
More rapid onset and shorter duration of action than sulfonylureas
Nateglinide
Meglitinide analogs
Bind to ATP-sensitive K+ channels and leads to insulin release
More rapid onset and shorter duration of action than sulfonylureas
Metformin
Biguanide
Reduces hepatic glucose output via inhibition of gluconeogenesis
Slows intestinal glucose absorption and improves peripheral glucose uptake
Reduces LDL, VLDL, increases HDL
Pioglitazone
Works through PPARγ to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity
Decreases adipose fatty acid secretion and glucose metabolism
Increased HDL, redistribution of fat from visceral to subcutaneous tissue
Rosiglitazone
Works through PPARγ to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity
Decreases adipose fatty acid secretion and glucose metabolism
Increased HDL, redistribution of fat from visceral to subcutaneous tissue
Acarbose
Reversibly inhibit membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase in the gut
Miglitol
Reversibly inhibit membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase in the gut
Sitagliptin
Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor
DPP-IV inactivates incretin hormones
Prolongs activity of incretin hormones like GLP-1
Exenatide
Incretin mimetic with 50% homology to GLP-1
Increases insulin release, slows gastric emptying time, decreases food intake, promotes β-cell proliferation