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68 Cards in this Set

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According to Bartolome de Las Casas:

Spain had caused the death of millions of innocent people in the New World.

Around 9,000 years ago, agriculture developed in the Americas around:

Mexico and Peru.

Bartolome de Las Casas argued that Indians:

should enjoy "all guarantees of liberty and justice" as subjects of Spain.

Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans:

had elaborate trade networks.

Both the Aztec and Inca empires were:

large, wealthy, and sophisticated.

Europeans - particularly the English, French, and Dutch - generally claimed North American Indian land as their own based on:

their view that Indians did not use the land properly.

How did Spain justify enslaving Native Americans?

The Spanish believed that enslavement could not liberate Native Americans from their backwardness and savagery and introduce them to Christian civilization.

How did the Dutch manifest their devotion to liberty?

They supported religious toleration in their colony.

In 1492, the Native American population:

was between 2 million and 5 million in what is today the United States.

In 1517, the German priest ___________ began the Protestant Reformation by posting his Ninety-Five Theses, which accused the Catholic Church of worldliness and corruption.

Martin Luther

In 1519, who became the first European explorer to encounter the Aztec empire?

Hernan Cortes

In Europe on the eve of colonization, one conception of freedom, called "Christian liberty":

mingled ideas of freedom with servitude to Jesus Christ - concepts that were seen as mutually reinforcing, not contradictory.

In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch:

concentrated more on economics than religious conversion.

John Cabot sailed to:

Newfoundland.

New France was characterized by:

more-peaceful European-Indian relations than existed in New Spain.

The Black Legend described:

Spain as a uniquely brutal colonizer.

The city situated along the Mississippi River with between 10,000 and 30,000 residents in the year 1200 is today known as:


Cahokia.

The Columbian Exchange was:

the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.

The first center of the Spanish empire in America:

was the island of Hispaniola.

The first permanent European settlement in the Southwest, established in 1610, was:

Santa Fe.

The French explorations of the New World:

focused on the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Rivers.

The Jesuit religious order was particularly influential in:

New France.

The Pueblo Indian uprising of 1680:

helped lead to the most complete victory for Native Americans over Europeans.

The Pueblo Indians encountered by the Spanish in the sixteenth century:

developed techniques to farm in desert climates.

The reconquista was the reconquest of Spain from the:

Moors.

The repartimiento system established by the Spanish in the mid-1500s:

recognized Indians as free but required them to perform a fixed amount of labor.

The ritual sacrifices practiced by the Aztecs:

disgusted Europeans despite their own practices of publicly executing criminals and burning witches at the stake.

The Spanish justified their claim to land in the New World through all of the following EXCEPT:

defeating the English fleet in 1588.

The transatlantic flow of people and goods such as corn, potatoes, horses, and sugarcane is called:

the Columbian Exchange.

What does the seal of New Netherland, adopted by the Dutch West Indian Company in 1630, suggest is central to the colony's economic prospects?

fur

What European city was known in the early seventeenth century as a haven for persecuted Protestants from all over Europe and even for Jews fleeing Spain?

Amsterdam

What geographic error did Columbus make?

He grossly underestimated the size of the earth.

Which European country dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century?

the Netherlands

Which one of the following is true of religion in the seventeenth-century Europe?

Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order.

Which of the following is true of agriculture in Spanish America?

Landlords controlled haciendas, large-scale farms.

Which one of the following is true of Spanish emigrants to the New World?

Many of the early arrivals came to direct Native American labor.

Which one of the following is true about Spanish America?

Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture - part Spanish, part Indian, and, in some areas, part African.

Which of the following is true of Spain's explorations of the New World?

Florida was the first region in the present-day United States that Spain colonized.

Which of the following is true of freedom in New Netherland?

Married women retained a legal identity separate from that of their husbands.

Which of the following statements about the Indians of North America is FALSE?

Indians lacked genuine religion.

Which one of the following statements about gender relations is FALSE for most Native American societies?

A woman generally moved in with her husband's family.

Which one of the following statements about the Pueblo Revolt is FALSE?

It was inspired by the Pope, but he died before the actual revolt took place.

Which one of the following statements about New Netherland is FALSE?

Women had many liberties but could not retain their legal identity after marriage.

Which one of the following statements is true of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan?

It had a complex system of canals, bridges, and dams, with the Great Temple at the center.

Which one of the following was NOT true of women in Native American societies?

Women made all decisions about trade relations with other tribes.

Which one of the following was true of New France?

Its population was limited at best, because France feared that a significant emigration would undermine its role as a great European power.

Which one of the following was true of French relations with Native Americans?

Jesuit missionaries tried to convert Native Americans, but gave them far more independence than did Spanish missionaries.

Why did European exploration of the New World proceed so rapidly after Columbus's discoveries?

Gutenberg's invention of the printing press enabled the rapid dissemination of information.

Why did the Portuguese begin exploration to find a water route to India, China, and the East Indies?

to eliminate the Muslim "middlemen" in the luxury goods trade

"Christian liberty" was the basis for religious toleration:

FALSE

African society did not practice slavery before Europeans came.

FALSE

Agriculture did not come to the American continents, around Mexico and Peru, until 1,000 years ago.

FALSE

By 1550, the Spanish empire in the New World exceeded the ancient Roman empire in size.

TRUE

Columbus established the first permanent settlement on Hispaniola in 1502.

FALSE

Columbus first sailed to what is now Venezuela.

FALSE

Columbus was Spanish.

FALSE

Cortes conquered the capital city of the Aztec empire with an army of over 1,000 men.

FALSE

Everywhere in Europe, family life depended on male dominance.

TRUE

Like the Spanish, the French often intermarried with the Indians, resulting in mixed-race children.

TRUE

Most, although not all, Indian societies were matrilineal.

TRUE

Portuguese seafarers initially explored the African coast.

TRUE

Relations between the Pueblo Indians and colonial authorities deteriorated throughout the seventeenth century.

TRUE

Spain insisted that the primary goal of colonization was to save the Indians from heathenism.

TRUE

The catastrophic decline in the native populations of Spanish America was mostly due to the fact that they were not immune to European diseases.

TRUE

The Indians of North America believed that land was a common resource and the basis of economic life.

TRUE

The Indians, although diverse, all seemed to observe religious ceremonies centered around hunting or farming.

TRUE

The Spanish reconquista required that all Muslims and Jews convert to Catholicism or leave Spain immediately.

TRUE

When the Edict of Nantes, which had granted religious toleration to French Protestants (Huguenots), was revoked in 1685, some 100,000 Huguenots fled France for New France.

FALSE