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29 Cards in this Set

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List the categories of open space in degree of intolerance to development, as defined in 'Design with Nature'
1. surface water
2. marshes
3. floodplains
4. aquifer recharge areas
5. aquifers
6. steep slopes
7. forests and woodlands
8. flat land excluding prime agricultural land
One of the first plans to emphasize the idea of zoning that would later become vital for city planning

designed in 1917 by Tony Garnier

-ample open space between buildings
-separate zones for residential, public, industrial, and agricultural use
-separated circulation for vehicles and pedestrians
Cite Industrielle
who designed the urban plan for DC, and what historical types of planning was it inspired by? What design elements did it take from these types of plans?
-designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant

-based on Renaissance and Baroque planning

-included diagonal and radial streets imposed on a rectangular grid.
Agora
The Greek marketplace also used for meeting, exchanging news, and other business.
Camillo Sitte
The Austrian architect who wrote 'City Planning According to Artistic Principles' in 1889.

He proposed that cities be laid out like medieval towns, with curving and irregular streets.
Medieval City Planing
Begins at the crossroads of two main streets and is irregular in layout.

Organized around the church and the market.
Begins at the crossroads of two main streets and is irregular in layout.

Organized around the church and the market.
Renaissance City Planning
More attention paid to aesthetics

Combined symmetrical order with radial layout of streets focused on points of interest.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Designed many of the major parks in the U.S. including Central Park, Prospect Park, Riverside Park, Audubon Park, and more.

Was the landscape designer for the Columbian Exposition
The Columbian Exposition
Designed by Daniel Burnham, John Root, and Frederick Law Olmsted in 1893

Grouped classical buildings symmetrically around formal spaces

Started one of the most profound changes in American urban design, and the City Beautiful movement
Core
A Kevin Lynch term for the focus of a district, that may be perceived as a symbol of that part of the city.
Oscar Newman
Wrote the book 'Defensible Space' which described the concepts of surveillance, territoriality, and real and symbolic barriers to reduce crime.

Later, these concepts developed into CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design) which adds additional methods of reducing crime such as electronic surveillance, alarms, and human resources.
Garden City
Published by Ebenezer Howard in 1898

attempted to combine the best of city and country living in his town-country idea.
Published by Ebenezer Howard in 1898

attempted to combine the best of city and country living in his town-country idea.
Imageability
A Kevin Lynch term for the quality of a physical environment that gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in the mind of an observer.
Neighborhood
A relatively small area in which a number of people live who share similar needs and desires in housing, social activities, and other aspects of day-to-day living.

The original concept as part of city planning was developed by Clarence Perry in 1929

has become the basic planning unit for American urban design.
New Towns
Meant to be autonomous centers including housing, shopping, and business, surrounded by a greenbelt.

Several were built in England but they never became fully independent because they lacked significant employment centers.
The Ordinance of 1785
Established the rectangular survey system of the United States
The U.S. Survey System
divides the country into a grid of:

checks (24mi X 24mi)
townships (6mi X 6mi)
sections (1mi X 1 mi)
turbine square
Civic spaces around a pinwheel arrangement of streets. Proposed by Camillo Sitte
Underdeveloped Property
Property that is not developed in such a way as to yield the highest return on investment.
Community Centers
As defined by the urban land institute:

-large supermarket
-variety store
-small services and specialty stores
Neighborhood Centers
As defined by the urban land institute:

-provides daily convenience goods and services
-usually have a grocery store or pharmacy
Regional Center
As defined by the urban land institute:

-draws from a large geographic area
-a cluster of large 'big box' retailers, or a typical shopping mall.
Loading Berths
the size and number of Loading Berths are usually specified by local zoning ordinances.

generally, they should be appx 10ft by 40ft with a 14ft vertical clearance and a minimum turning radius of 60ft.
Expanding Grid Urban Development Pattern
Urban development pattern conceived at the junction of two roads and is expanded in the same pattern of two sets of regularly spaced parallel lines.

Usually characteristic of smaller cities

Example: Philadelphia
Urban development pattern conceived at the junction of two roads and is expanded in the same pattern of two sets of regularly spaced parallel lines.

Usually characteristic of smaller cities

Example: Philadelphia
Field Urban Development Pattern
Urban development pattern with no central focus or overall organization.

Development occurs in an amorphous network of highways and natural features.

Example: Los Angelos
Urban development pattern with no central focus or overall organization.

Development occurs in an amorphous network of highways and natural features.

Example: Los Angelos
Megalopolis Urban Development Pattern
The urban pattern that occurs when two or more major urban centers grow together as the space between gets developed.
The urban pattern that occurs when two or more major urban centers grow together as the space between gets developed.
Satellite Urban Development Pattern
Urban pattern with a central core and other major cores surrounding it. They are linked to the central core and to other cores with major highways. Sometimes the outer cores are connected by a beltway

Example: Houston
Urban pattern with a central core and other major cores surrounding it. They are linked to the central core and to other cores with major highways. Sometimes the outer cores are connected by a beltway

Example: Houston
Star Pattern
An urban pattern that revolves around an urban core and is developed along radiating spokes of highways or transit routes

Example: Berlin
An urban pattern that revolves around an urban core and is developed along radiating spokes of highways or transit routes

Example: Berlin
The first zoning ordinance
Passed in New York in 1916