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32 Cards in this Set

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Geography
The study of spatial variation and distribution of how and why thing differ from place to place on the surface of the earth, and of how observable spatial patterns have evolved through time.
Geography (shorter def)
Seeks to explain how physical and social systems interact on the surface of the earth to create very distinctive landscapes. The spatial science.
Geography concerning with 3 dominating interests: #1
The spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth; relations b/w humans and the natural environment they occupy.
Interest #2
A focus on the spatial systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one oarea of the earth with other areas of the earth.
Interest #3
Regional or areal analysis. Human-environment relations and spatial systems in specific locations.
Physical Geography
The natural side of the human-environment structure concerned with landforms and their distribution, atmospheric conditions, climate patterns, soils and vegetation.
Human Geography
The people side, where they are and why, what they are like, how they interact over space, and what kinds of landscapes of human use they erect on the natural landscapes they occupe.
Urban Geography
Is concerned with the study of the development of towns and cities around the world w/ particular reference to the similarities and difference both amng and within urban spaces.
City
An inhabited place, a prominent, organized center of population with various skills, lacking the suffience to produce food and depends on manufacturing.
Precondition for cities:
Surplus- how big, who controls, what is done with it.
Size of surplus
Determined by env. conditions, technology, social org. Mode of production.
Size of surplus
Determined by env. conditions, technology, social org. Mode of production.
Who controls surplus
Relations between cities facilitated trade among people- constrained by size, climate, etc.
Built Environment
Edifices and physical infrastructure assembled on the earth by humans which become part of the topography or landscape for the long or medium term.
The Primate City
When the pop. of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the 2nd and 3rd largest cities in that system. ie London buenos aires.
Geographic Instabilities of Cities (7)
1. Innercity Competition
2. Suburbanization
3. International Competition
4. Decentralization of Production 5. City of Consumption & Spectacle
6.Environmental Effects on the Urban
7. Aging Urban Infrastructure
Urbanism
A way of life associated with residence in an urban area
Urbanization
The relative concentration of a territory's population in towns and cities. The processes of urbanization and capital accumulation are linked.
Terra Nullius
Literally empty space. Idea that all land was eligible for occupation- territoriality linked to this. Mapping is exercise of power.
Tabula Rasa
Literally blank slate. Most architects don't take into consideration for what was there before.
Housing is a Universal Human Activity. Three Laws of Housing
1. Freedom to Build
2. Its not what housing is but what it does in people's lives
3. Deficiencies and imperfections in your housing are infinitely more tolerable if they are your responsibility that if they are somebody elses.
Exchange Value
What you can get for something on a market
Heteronomy
The condition of being under the rule or domination of another (negative connotation). Not doing housing as a verv, top down and emphasis on market exchange value. Strict material standards, centrally planned, heavy large scale, standardized design, alienation of residents, heavy large scale, cost is high.
Use value
What you an individual wants and uses something for
Autonomy
Emphasizes use value to the residents, local participation in building, maintaining and managing, less use of heavy machinery, resourcefulness of residents, local and personal control essential, small scale, rewards local netword of suppliers companies and workers.
8 Factors to measure housing value for a family
1. Price 2. Cost 3. Income 4. Fixed assests 5. Employment access 6. social access 7. physical standards 8. Security of tenure
Capital Accumulation
Driven the enourmous growth of cities under industrialization. Capital used for housing, transportaion, industry, manufacturing.
Territoriality (3 mechanisms)
Strategy used by individuals, groups, organizations to exercise power over a portion of space and its contents. Put into practice by 1. Popular acceptance of classification of space 2. Communication of a sense of place where territorial markers and boundaries have meaning 3. Enforcing control over space by means of serveillance
Housing falls into many uses: 7
1. Shelter 2. quantity of space for exclusive use by the occupants 3. Privacy 4. Relative Location in a positive sense 5. Relative location in a negative sense 6. Neighborhood locations has a physical social and symbolic characteristics 7. A Means for storing and enhancing wealth
Land & Buildings as a commodity: 6
1. Fixed Location
2. No person can do without some quantity
3. Tends to change hands infrequently
4. Land is permanent
5. ???????
6.Multiple use values can exist simultaneously.
The Housing Question
1872, Engles. 1. Convert tenants to owners 2. Dispose of capitalist mode of production.
Friction of Distance
The deterant or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity, reflecting the time and cost of overcoming distance.