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23 Cards in this Set

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Describe similarities and differences between the personality theories of Erikson and Freud.
Erkison’s outlined 8 development stages.

He extended Freud’s original theory that encompassed developmental stages to go beyond adolescence. Extended into adolescence, adulthood, and old age.

At each stage the individual works through a specific psychosocial struggle that builds from the previous stage and contributes to the formation of personality. The conflict of the syntonic (harmonious element) and dystonic (disruptive element) produces the basic strength at each stage. Dissolving of this conflict allows the individual to move up to the next stage of development.

Core pathology for that stage can occur due to too little basic strength.

Freud focused on the pyschosexual energy at each stage of development. Erikson places more emphasis social and historical influences verses Freud’s theory that emphasised the ego.
Write about the importance of the ego in Erikson’s theory. con't
FREUD: Used the analogy of rider on horseback to describe the relationship of ego and id.

the ___ (rider) is ultimately lead by the actions of the id (horse).. ___ has no power of own but must borrow energy from Id. Freud saw that the ego worked to constantly balance demands from: super ego, id and realistic, external world.

ERIKSON: In contrast, Erikson saw the ___ as a positive force that was capable of creating self identity.
A sense of “I”.
The ego is the centre of our personality.
Capable of helping us deal w/ conflict & crises of life. The ego has the ability to keep us from losing our individuality to the external forces instilled by society. The ego is weak, delicate but also flexible in childhood.
In adolescence it will begin to strengthen & develop. The ego unifies personality.
The ego as partly conscious. Able to organize & “synthesize our present experiences with past self-identities and anticipated images of self.”
3 parts.
3 interrelated parts of ego:

1. the body ego

2. ego ideal

3. ego identity
1. experiences we have with our body.
How we perceive our physical self as being different from other people.
Perception can be negative or positive in terms of however view or physical self. tWe must accept that our body is the only one we have.

2. We compare this visual image of yourself to our concept of the idealized self. This view accounts for whether we are happy or satisfied with our own body and personal identity.

3. can evolve and change as it is dependent on what role we have in different social settings.

Historical and social factors influence ego development.

Each person’s ego has the potential for growth and the formation is dependant on the environmental influences.
Discuss ways in which social and cultural factors influence personality
______ influence ego development.

Each person’s ego has the potential for growth and the formation is dependant on the environmental influences.

Examples include child-rearing practices and other cultural customs.

All cultures developed pseudospecies. This is defined as a society’s perception that they are superior to all other races.

pseudospecies - illusion perpetrated and perpetuated by a particular society that it is somehow chosen to be the human race. ex. Nazis
Compare and contrast Erikson's first four stages of psychological development with Freud's infantile and latency stages.

1) Infancy - parallel oral phase (F.)
0-2
Freud: focusing on the sensations perceived by the erogenous zone - the mouth.

Erikson: Expanded view of Freud’s oral stage.

Stage as infants absorbing the world around them through all senses not just mouth.

The infant learns to trust or mistrust the world by exploring the world through their senses.

Basic strength: Hope
Core pathology: Withdrawal
Compare and contrast Erikson's first four stages of psychological development with Freud's infantile and latency stages.

2) Early Childhood - mirrors anal stage (F.)
2 -3 years.
Freud: Anal stage. Focus was on the anus as the erogenous zone at this stage of development.
Main focus on one’s successful ability to toilet train.

Erikson: Broader view at development at this stage.
Mastering bodily functions not solely toilet training was how young children received pleasure at this stage.

Through mastering bodily functions one in turn develops a sense of control over their interpersonal environment and is a measure of self-control.

Crisis: Shame & Doubt vs. Autonomy.

Basic strength: Will (if the learning environment allows the child freedom of self expression in their control).

Core pathology: Compulsion (if the child develops inadequate will).
Compare and contrast Erikson's first four stages of psychological development with Freud's infantile and latency stages.

3) Play Age - Same time as phallic phase.
3 - 5 years
Freud: At the core the Oedipus complex. Successful resolution of the Oedipus complex will result in a child being able to identify with their parents.

Erikson:
Oedipus complex is one of many important developments. Oedipal situation is the “prototype of the lifelong power of human playfulness”.
Castration anxiety should not be taken literally.
Saw it as an expression of locomotor abilities the child may play the role of their parental units.
Penis envy was wishing to obtain the same privileges males were granted in society more than the disappointment of not being born with the physical appendage.

Importance of developing: locomotion skills, language skills, curiosity, and imagination etc. Unless sexual interest is provoked by cultural sex play or by adult sexual abuse, the Oedipus complex produces harmful effects on later personality development.

Crisis: Initiative versus Guilt

Helps children to act with purpose and to set goals.

Basic strength: Purpose

Core pathology: Inhibition
Compare and contrast Erikson's first four stages of psychological development with Freud's infantile and latency stages.

4) School Age Matches same stage as Freud’s latency stage
6 - 12/13 years.

Freud: Includes the characteristic of sexual latency. Children’s social circle widens to include peers, teachers and other adults outside of the immediate family.
Aim to build their competence level and master skills like: reading, writing and other survival skills required of their culture.

Erikson: Child’s energy is focused on learning skills required to cope in their environment.

Crisis: Industry vs. Inferiority.

The ego identity is formed from the ones self image. Large amount of social development growth occurs.
Develops skills in problem solving cooperation and other relevant workforce skills.

Basic strength: Competence

Core pathology: Inertia
List Erikson's last four stages of psychosocial development, their crises, basic strengths, and core pathologies:

1) Adolescence
Time between puberty to young adulthood.

Crucial development stage. Gain a clear sense of ego identity by the end of this stage.
Stage of social latency.

Crisis: Identity vs. Identity confusion.

Basic strength: fidelity - faith in one’s ideology.
Adaptive phase. Trial and error phase of development. Search for one’s identity.

Core pathology: Role repudiation

a) defiance - the act of rebelling against authority. The person will actively push against societal rules and acceptable beliefs.

b) diffidence - is characterized as having little to no confidence or lack of self-trust. Shyness or hesitation are behaviors most seen in diffident individuals.
List Erikson's last four stages of psychosocial development, their crises, basic strengths, and core pathologies:

2) Young Adult
18 - 30
____ begins with the acquisition of intimacy at about age 18 and ends with the development of generativity at about age 30.

The psychosexual mode of _____ is genitality, which is expressed as mutual trust between partners in a stable sexual relationship. I

Crisis: Intimacy versus Isolation.
Intimacy - ability to fuse one's identity with that of another without fear of losing it
isolation - fear of losing one's identity in an intimate relationship.

Basic strength: Love
Core pathology: Exclusivity, or inability to love.
List Erikson's last four stages of psychosocial development, their crises, basic strengths, and core pathologies:

3) Adulthood
31 to 60 years

A time when people make significant contributions to society.

Psychosexual mode: procreativity, or the caring for one's children, the children of others, and the material products of one's society.

Crisis: Generativity versus sStagnation

Basic strength: Care

Core pathology: Rejectivity
List Erikson's last four stages of psychosocial development, their crises, basic strengths, and core pathologies:

4) Old Age
Age 60 until death.

The psychosexual mode of ___ is generalized sensuality; that is, taking pleasure in a variety of sensations and an appreciation of the traditional life style of people of the other gender.

Crisis: Integrity verses Despair
(the maintenance of ego-identity) verses (the surrender of hope).

Basic strength: Wisdom

Core pathology: Disdain (feeling being finished or helpless).
Explain how identity confusion can have positive effects on personality.
Before a person can evolve into a stable identity some doubt is necessary for normal development. Successfully moving through this stage is demonstrated by achieving the basic strength: fidelity. This is defined as
“faith in one’s ideology”.
Success is also marked by the following:
- Identify with an ideological principle
- Increased comfort level in their own behavior and actions they make.
- Trust the words and have faith in the of advice provided to them by peers and other adults.
- Have the confidence required for selecting an occupation
Discuss Erikson's use of psychohistory as a research method.
IT combines psychoanalytic concepts with historical methods.
Erikson defined it as “ the study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis and history”.
He used ___ to demonstrate his fundamental beliefs that each person is a product of his or her historical time and that those historical times are influenced by exceptional leaders experiencing a personal identity conflict.
As an author or psychohistory, Erikson believed you should be emotionally involved with your subject.

ERIKSON examined Ghandi’s life cycle but concentrated on one particular crisis, which climaxed when a middle-aged Ghandi first used self-imposed fasting as a political weapon.
Ghandi developed strength from this identity crisis.
Inner conflict only adds an indispensable momentum to all superhuman effort.
Describe Erikson's anthropological studies

1. Sioux of South Dakota

2. Yurkon Nation
1. Apathy was an expression of an extreme dependancy the Sioux had developed as a result of their reliance on various federal government programs.

Child rearing practices had changed. Once upon a time young boys learned the skills to hunt and women were given the skills to be helpers and future mothers of hunters. No this was no longer seen appropriate.
The consequence to longer developing skills their ancestors had was the children had difficulty developing a sense of ego identity. This was especially true for the adolescents.

2. Tribe focused on teaching the youth fishing skills and highlighted the positive virtues in their culture.

Strong cultural values of the two tribes influenced the early childhood training and that both history and the society they lived in shaped their personality.
Describe recent research on Erikson's concepts of identity and generativity.

1. Generativity and Parenting:
Researcher: Dan McAdams & colleagues are prominent researcher on topic of generativity.
Measure: Developed the Loyala Generativity Scale (LGS) to measure a number of components relating to generativity. Includes: concern for future generations, as well as developing and maintaining archival items and capturing personal histories to share with the young. The LGS allows researchers to see the effect of parental generativity has on a child’s development.
Hypothesis: <3 are more well-adjusted and content if they are raised by parents who are score high in terms of generativity.

Experimenter: Bill Peterson
Hypothesis: <3 of generativity parents would be happier. They would also be optimistic about the years ahead and spend more time planning for their future.
Participant: University students. Parents.
Result: The evidence supported the hypothesis. Students with generativity parents were generally happier & had an optimistic, future goal oriented perspective.
Describe recent research on Erikson's concepts of identity and generativity.

2. Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stagnation and Generativity opposite ends of a continuum.

Study: Originally it was thought that if you scored high in generativity than you would naturally be low in stagnation. However now researchers are exploring how do much do the two constructs independently.

Experimenters: Van Hiel and colleagues
Measure: LGS
Results: found the two constructs: generativity and stagnation are capable of working autonomously.
The evidence showed that stagnation is connected to emotional regulation problems. But did not find any relationship to generativity.
Evidence showed that some participants who measured high on both the constructs are not mentally healthy.
Overall it demonstrated the in adult development the two constructs can and do work independently.
List three differences between the theories of Erikson and Freud.
List three differences between the theories of Erikson and Freud.

Extended Freud’s infantile (beyond childhood) developmental stages into adolescence, adulthood, and old age

Places more emphasis social and historical influences verses Freud’s theory that emphasized the ego.
List and explain three additions that Erikson made to Freudian theory.

1) Infancy - parallel oral phase (F.)
Freud: Stage was limited to focusing on the sensations perceived by the erogenous zone - the mouth.

Erikson: Expanded view of Freud’s oral stage. Erikson saw this stage as infants absorbing the world around them through all senses not just mouth. The infant learns to trust or mistrust the world by exploring the world through their senses.
List and explain three additions that Erikson made to Freudian theory.

2) Early Childhood - mirrors anal stage (F.) 2 -3 years.
Freud: Anal stage. Freud thought that the focus was on the anus as the erogenous zone at this stage of development. The main focus concentrated around one’s successful ability to toilet train.

Erikson: Again, Erickson took a broader view at development at this stage. He stated that it was mastering bodily functions not solely toilet training was how young children received pleasure at this stage. Through mastering bodily functions one in turn develops a sense of control over their interpersonal environment and is a measure of self-control. The crisis at this stage is between: Shame & Doubt vs. Autonomy. The child will develop the basic strength: will if the learning environment allows the child freedom of self expression in their control. Compulsion is the core pathology that develops if the child develops inadequate will.
List and explain three additions that Erikson made to Freudian theory.

3) Play Age - Same time as phallic phase. 3 - 5 years
Freud: At the core of Freud’s phallic phase is the Oedipus complex. Successful resolution of the Oedipus complex will result in a child being able to identify with their parents.

Erikson: During the Play stage, Erikson thought the Oedipus complex is one of many important developments. He saw the Oedipal situation as the “prototype of the lifelong power of human playfulness”. He did not think that castration anxiety should be taken literally. He did however see that as an expression of locomotor abilities the child may play the role of their parental units. He also thought that penis envy was more about wishing to obtain the same privileges males were granted in society more than the disappointment of not being born with the physical appendage. Also, he expanded his view and saw the importance of developing: locomotion skills, language skills, curiosity, and imagination etc.
Define and explain Erikson's epigenetic principle.
Erkison’s outlined 8 development stages. One’s personality organically develops as they move through the 8 predetermined stages. Other factors include: our environment and surrounding culture that play a role in how our personality is shaped and progress through these stages.
He extended Freud’s original theory that encompassed only infantile to beyond childhood. Developmental stages extended into adolescence, adulthood, and old age. At each stage the individual works through a specific psychosocial struggle that builds from the previous stage and contributes to the formation of personality. The conflict of the syntonic (harmonious element) and dystonic (disruptive element) produces the basic strength at each stage. Dissolving of this conflict allows the individual to move up to the next stage of development. Core pathology for that stage can occur due to too little basic strength.
Explain the difference between:

a. Psychohistory

b. Case History
a. A psychological or psychoanalytic interpretation or study of historical events or persons

b. A detailed account of the facts affecting the development or condition of a person or group under treatment or study, especially in medicine, psychiatry, or psychology.