Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Swine

Hyostrongylus rubidus, Ascarops strongylina, Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Trichinella spiralis, Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris suis

Hyostrongylus rubidus

Hyostrongylus rubidus

Red Stomach Worm


Direct


Dx: Eggs in feces


Infective stage: larvae in soil, vegetation, or on feces

Ascarops strongylina or Physocephalus sexalatus

Ascarops strongylina or Physocephalus sexalatus

Thick Stomach Worm


Indirect: host = dung beetle


Dx: Eggs in feces


Infective stage: larvae in dung beetle

Ascaris suum

Ascaris suum

Large round worm


Pigs


Direct


Dx: Sometimes pass worm in feces; 41 cm long, 5cm wide


Adults live in small intestine


Tx: Ivermectin, Levamisole, Fenbendazole, Pyran


Eggs look like tamberine

Strongyloides ransomi

Strongyloides ransomi

Threadworms


Pig


Direct


Dx: Eggs or L1 in feces


Infective stage: L3


Transferred: ingestion, transmammary, transplacental, penetrate skin


Zoonotic


When L3 enters the host, it undergoes tracheal migration, lining of intestines; females are parasitic; warm, moist environment; can migrate to fetus and mature to adult after birth


Tx: Fenbendazole, Levandazole, Ivermectin

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinella spiralis

Trichina worm


Direct host can also be intermediate host


Most pigs are asymptomatic; larval stage goes into muscle; ruins meat


Zoonotic by undercooked pork

Oesophagostomum sp. (dentatum)

Oesophagostomum sp. (dentatum)

Nodular Worm


Called nodular worm because it penetrates the intestine and causes nodules in the intestinal wall


Direct


Dx: eggs in feces


Infective stage: L3, ingested or penetrate skin


Tx: Fenbendazole, Invermectin, Thiabendazole, Iavendazole


Looks like Hyostrongylus and Trichostrongylus species


Trichuris suis

Trichuris suis

Whipworm


Thick, yellow-brown shell with bipolar plugs


Live in cecum and colon


Live in the ground for 3-5 years


Pre. period: 3 months


Most dewormers only kill adults; must be treated for a minimum of 3 months

Respiratory Nematodes

Metastrongylus elongatus

Metastrongylus elongatus

Metastrongylus elongatus

Lung worm


Indirect: host = earthworm


Larvae released and migrate to lungs


Dx: embrionated eggs in feces and adults in radiograph

Stephanurus dentatus

Stephanurus dentatus

Kidney worm (aberrant)


2nd most common in pigs


Direct


Lives mostly in kidney and in other organs


Earthworm may be transport host


Dx: eggs in urine


Infective stage: L3 - soil or earthworm but skin penetration is possible


Dislikes cold climates; If penetrates the skin, it will enter the lungs where it enters systemic circulation and goes to the kidney, but it can be found in the thorax.


If ingested, it will pass through the intestinal wall into the hepatic portal system into the liver, where it will stay for 2-9 months, then it will break into the peritoneal region (kidney tissue or fat) in body. 6-16 months before shedding eggs


Tx: Ivermectin or Fenbendazole

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Thorny-headed worm


Indirect: host = dung beetle


Adults live in small intestine


Dx: eggs in feces


Tx: Loperamide, Ivermectin


Infective Stage: cystacanth


No bi-polar plugs

Protozoa of Pigs

Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium coli, Cryptoisospora suis or Isospora suis

Urogenital Nematodes

Stephanurus dentatus, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Balantidium coli

Balantidium coli

Direct


Lives in cecum or colon


Dx: oocytes in feces or the motile stage in feces


Tx: Metranidazole and also treat symptoms

Cryptosporidium coli

Cryptosporidium coli

Direct


Lives in small intestine


Dx: oocytes in feces


Zoonotic


Tx: Metranidazole and treat symptoms

Cystoisospora suis Isospora suis

Cystoisospora suis Isospora suis

Direct


Found in small intestine


Dx: Oocytes in feces


Infective stage: Sporulated


Only treat if showing symptoms

Blood parasites

Babesia spp., Mycoplasma haemofelis (Haemobartonella), Mycoplasma haemocanis (Haemobartonella), Eperthyrozoon spp., Anaplasma margonale, Trypanosoma spp.

Babesia spp.

Babesia spp.

canis = dog, equi = horse, caballi = horse, bigemina = cow


Canine & Equine piroplasms


Indirect: host = tick


Binary fission


Dx: Basophilic pear-shaped organism in red blood cell or serum


Causes: hemalytic anemia, fever, anorexia


Tx: Imidocarb Diproprionate

Mycoplasma spp.

Mycoplasma spp.

haemofelis = FIA (Feline Infectious Anemia), haemocanis = very rare


Transmitted by fleas and ticks


Dx: blood smear


Tx: Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline or Doxicycline


Causes: Anorexia and Dehydration

Eperythrozoon spp.

Eperythrozoon spp.

Definitive Host: cattle, sheep, swine


Transmitted by fleas and ticks


Dx: Blood smear


Tx: Tetracycline and Oxytetracycline or Doxicycline


Causes: Anorexia and Dehydration

Anaplasma marginale

Anaplasma marginale

Definitive Host: Cattle


Transmitted by Ticks


Dx: Blood smear or on the serum


Tx: Doxicycline


Signs: Fever, lethargy, depression, anorexia


Zoonotic

Trypanosoma spp.

Trypanosoma spp.

Depends on animal


Transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods


Dx: Blood smear or histopathology (tissue sample)


No known Tx


Zoonotic so animals are usually euthanized


Cause: Anemia, enlarged spleen, enlarged lymph nodes

Arthropods

Animals with jointed legs; vectors, intermediate hosts, or produce toxins

Ticks

"questing", sense heat and when they feel heat, they attach where the female will engorge on the host, drop to the ground, and lay eggs. The eggs will hatch into larva called seed ticks; larva quest to find small mammal host to feed on; first larva has 6 legs, drops off host, and changes into a nymph which has 8 legs, it climbs onto vegetation, quests, and attaches to another mammal where it gets its meal, drops to the ground, and changes into an adult. The adult finds host, pairs with mate, and the life cycle stats over. Female is bigger than the male. Tx: once a month topicals, sprays, shampoos, tick collars, dips

Otobius megnini

Otobius megnini

Common Name: Spinous Ear Tick


Definitive Host: Dogs, cats, horses


Get deep into the ear canal and cause irritation. 1 Host tick; does not drop off to change; stays on one animal.


Adults - free living


Larval and nymphs - parasitic


Adults fall off the animal

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Brown Dog Tick


Definitive Host: Dogs, can infest home or kennel


Vector of blood parasites: Babesia, Erhlichiosis


Can cause tick paralysis - enzyme or toxin in saliva of tick; presents hind limb of animal and can spread to front, leads to death.


Tx for ticks: Chemicals, manually, entire head, shave hair of long haired dogs


Dx: both blood parasites when seen in blood smear


Signs: Pale, weak, fever, enlarged spleen, bleeding disorders


Tx for parasites: Antibiotics and Doxicycline

Dermacentor variablis

Dermacentor variablis

American Dog Tick


Dogs & Humans


Prefers grassy and scrubbrush


Vector of: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever


Can cause tick paralysis


Signs: Fever, lethargy, enlarged lymph nodes, abdominal pain


Dx: Signs and blood tests


Tx: antibiotics i.e. Doxicycline

Amblyomma americanum

Amblyomma americanum

Lone Star Tick (because of white spot on apex)


Definitive Host: Dogs and humans


Found: head, belly, and flank


Will feed on humans, painful bite


Vector: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever


Amblyomma maculatum

Amblyomma maculatum

Gulf Coast Tick


D. Host: Cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, humans


Painful bite, will cause swelling


Tick Paralysis can also occur


Found on ears in cattle, and will cause ear to droop or deform in horses

Ixodes spp.

Ixodes spp.

Deer Tick


D. Host: Dogs


Vector: Lymes Disease


Dx: Blood test


Tx: Antibiotic i.e. Doxicycline


Stress to client the proper removal, landscaping, and proper preventatives

Ctenocephalides felis and canis

Ctenocephalides felis and canis

Dog and Cat flea


Cat flea is most common


Host for tapeworm and haemabartonella


Dx: See fleas, flea dirt, flea allergy dermatitis, itching (scratching can cause secondary infection)


Fleas transmit to humans


Cause: swollen lymph nodes and can lead to death


*Flea dirt has digested blood in it

Echidnophaga gallinacea

Echidnophaga gallinacea

Stick-Tight Flea


Definitive Host: Chickens, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats


Large, can look like tick, female will have the teeth to attach their mouths to a certain spot

Sarcoptes scabei

Sarcoptes scabei

Sarcoptic mange


D. Host: Dogs


Transmitted: direct contact usually between own species but humans can catch, not severe to humans


Dx: deep skin scraping


"burrowing mite"


Mates on top of the skin and lays eggs, eggs hatch into larvae which burrow and tunnel


Burrowing and Tunneling cause itching


Tx: dip = paramite, use for 2 weeks apart and 2-3 treatments may be necessary, tell clients to soak skin

Notoedres cati

Notoedres cati

Feline scabes mite


Very rare; when have = localized to ears, face, and neck


Burrowns and tunnels in epidermis


Tx: Ivermectin


Keep separated from other cats until a negative skin scrape is obtained

Demodex spp.

Demodex spp.

Red mange


Found: Sebaceous glands and hair follicles of host


Host specific, can be transmitted when puppy is nursing, normal, nonpathogenic but becomes issue if immunodeficiancy or under stress which causes multiplication


Tx: Dip: mitaban, every 2 weeks for a minimum of 4 dips, wear goggles and gloves when applying; Dovamectin (Ivermectin derivative) injection = once a week for 6 weeks

Psoroptes spp.

Psoroptes spp.

cuniculi = rabbit earmite (can be seen on goat, sheep, horse)


ovis = sheep scabmite


bovis = cow scabmite - affects neck, withers, and rump


equi = horse scabmite - affects base of mane and tail


All host specific


All cause damage to wool; crusty lesions


Tx: Ivermectin


Highly contagious between animals and must be reported to USDA if seen

Chorioptes spp.

Chorioptes spp.

Foot and Tail Mite


equi = horse, affects pastern and hind leg and spreads to flank and shoulders


bovis = cow, affects tail region


caprae = goat, affects hind leg


ovis = sheep, affects hind leg


Tx: Ivermectin

Otodectes cynotis

Otodectes cynotis

Ear Mite


D. Host: Dog and cat


can swap from dog to cat or cat to dog


If animal is part of a multiple animal family, treat everyone


Dx: Swab mite and use mineral oil or the Dr. can see with otoscope


Tx: Ivermectin, Tresaderm (must be refrigerated and is costly)