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21 Cards in this Set

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Five steps approach
Step 1: Heart rate
Step 2: Heart rhythm
Step 3: P wave
Step 4: PR interval
Step 5: QRS complex
59
Heart rate determination
Usually is done counting ventricular heart rate. Meaning QRS. Sometimes it is appropriate to calculate both the atrial heart rate (P waves) and the ventricular heart rate (QRS waves).
60
bradycardia
Rate less than 60 BPM
60
tachycardia
Rate above 100 BPM
60
6 seconds=___ large boxes
30
61
R-R interval method
Method use to calculate heart rate where you count the number of large boxes between one R wave and the next. Than divide it into 300. So if 3 large boxes in between than you get 300/3=~100 bpm
61
heart rhythm regular vs irregular
If the intervals between P to P wave vary by lass than 0.06 seconds (or 1.5 small squares), we can consider the rhythm regular. If however the intervals are variable by greater than 0.06 second, the rhythm is considered irregular.
61
Rhythms that are found to be irregular can be further classified as:
a. Regularly irregular-irregular rhythms that occur in patterns.
b. Occasional irregular-intervals of only one or two R-Rs are uneven.
c. Irregularly irregular-R-R intervals exhibit no similarity.
62
What are you looking at if the P wave is NOT upright in Lead II?
You are not looking at a sinus rhythm, as the rhythm is not originating from the SA node.
62
What 5 questions should be asked in evaluating the P wave:
1. Are P waves present?
2. Are the P waves occurring regularly?
3. Is there one P wav present for each QRS complex present?
4. Are the P waves smooth, rounded, and upright in appearance, or are they inverted?
5. Do all the P waves look similar?
63
The normal length of the PR interval is:
0.12-0.20 seconds (three to five small squares).
63
What may a long PR interval mean?
May indicate a delay in the electrical conduction pathway or an AV block.
63
What may a short PR interval mean?
May be an indication that the usual progression of the impulse was outside the normal route.
63
What are the three question you should ask about the PR interval?
1. Are PR intervals greater than 0.20 second?
2. Are PR interval less than 0.12 second?
3. Are PR interval constant across the EKG strip?
63
Normal time for QRS complex is:
0.12 second or less (three little boxes or less)
63
supraventricular
Above the ventricles. A QRS complex of 0.12 or less second.
63
A widen QRS complex indicate:
that the impulse is either or ventricular origin or of supraventricular orgin with conduction that is aberrant.
64
What are the three questing when evaluating QRS intervals?
1. Are the QRS wide (greater than 0.12 second)? If so, the complex may be ventricular in origin.
2. Are QRS intervals narrow (less than 0.12 second)? If so it is probably supraventricular in origin.
3. Are the QRS complexes similar in appearance across the EKG strip?
64
J point
The point where the QRS complex meets the ST segment.
64
artifact
EKG waveforms from sources outside the heart.
65
What are the four common cause of artifact?
1. Pt movement
2. Loose or defective electrodes
3. Improper grounding
4. Faulty EKG apparatus
65