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15 Cards in this Set

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Developmental Theory

- Describes change over time and those changes that are attributed more to maturation than to environmental experience

Classification of Theory

1. Nature vs. Nurture



2. Qualitative vs. Quantitative


- Qualitative -> individuals are qualitatively diff. at


diff. points in their life


- Quantitative -> development is primarily the


acquisition of a number of skills



3. Stability vs. Instability


- Stability -> the rules for anticipating behavior


are consistent across the lifespan


- Instability -> Rules apply at different points in an


ind. life



4. Reductionist vs. Nonreductionist


- Reductionist -> behavior is the sum of a # of


smaller behavior links


- Nonreductionist -> behavior as a total cannot be


broken into component parts



5. Organismic vs. Mechanistic


- Organismic -> needs and goals of ind. should


be considered


- Mechanistic -> ind. is viewed like a machine


that is acted upon by the env.

Affective Domain Theorists

1. Freud



2. Erikson



3. Maslow



4. Ainsworth



5. Chess & Thompson

Sigmund Freud

- Father of psychoanalysis


- Mental processes defined by ego (basic needs), ego (persona), and superego (moral self)


- Sexualized components to theories


- Oedipus complex


- Child Development theory:


1. Oral (Birth - 1yr)


- Concerned with feeding and oral exploration



2. Anal (1-2 yr)


- Bowel/bladder control



3. Phallic (3-5 yr)


- Sexual exploration/Masturbation


- Recognition of sexual differences in genders



4. Latency (7-12 yr)


- Sexuality quiets down



5. Genital (10 yr - Adolescence)


- Awakening of sexuality

Erik Erikson

- Neo-Freudian


- Saw development in more of a psychosocial light, than biological (like Freud)


- Theory is one of few that covers the entire lifespan:



1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1yr)



2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1-2yr)



3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5yr)



4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12yr)



5. Identity vs. Identity Diffusion (Adolescence)



6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adult)



7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Adult)



8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Older Adult)

Abraham Maslow

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Mary Ainsworth

- Attachment Theory -> earliest attachments leave lasting effects on one's life


- Children need attachment with primary caregiver; helps with emotional growth and security; even better


- Strange situation experiment


- Attachment styles:


1. Secure


- Mother is "home-base"


- Refers back to parent



2. Avoidant


- Does not seek closeness to parent and avoids


parent upon return



3. Ambivalent


- Explores while in presence of parent


- Distressed when parent leaves


- Ignores parents when they return



Chess & Thompson

Temperament Theory -> basic disposition of a person, measured by an individual's reaction to a situation, mostly set by age 5

Cognitive Domain Theorists

1. Piaget



2. Vgotsky

Jean Piaget

- "Children are little scientists"


- Theory of Cognitive Development:


1. Sensorimotor (Birth - 2 yrs)


- Development of object permanence


- Exploring with senses


- Differentiates self from objects



2. Preoperational (2 - 7 yrs)


- Egocentrism


- Classifies objects by a single feature


- Language development



3. Concrete Operations (7 - 11 yrs)


- Logical thinking


- Classifies objects according to several features


- Grasps concept of identity -> things are the


same despite differences in shape or size



4. Formal Operations (11 yrs - Adult)


- Hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning


- Symbolic thought

Lev Vgotsky

- To understand cognitive development, one must understand what is significant in the ind. environment


- Zone of Proximal Development -> refers to a child's being nearly prepared to comprehend a fact or perform a task such that a minimal support from others will allow successful completion of the task


- Zone of Proximal Development Theory:



Skill Development Begins ->



1. Assistance Provided By Others



2. Assistance Provided By Self



3. Internalization and Automatic Habit Formation



4. Recursiveness (or De-Automization) as acquired skill is adapted to new situations



-> Skill Acquired

Psychomotor Domain Theorists

1. Gesell

Arnold Gesell

- Maturational theorist


- Looked at norms -> what age do children develop certain skills?


- Gesells Standards/Normative Scales state that development occurs:


1. Cephalocaudal


- Head to toe


- Infant will gain control of head first, then begin


to grasp, sit, crawl, creep, and walk



2. Proximal -> Distal


- Gain control of shoulders before hands



3. Medial -> Lateral


- Middle to sides


- In relation to grasp, control of the pinky is


necessary first and then can work outward to


the thumb



4. Up Against Gravity



* This theory not only works with children, but also with patients who have brain injuries

Behaviorist Theorists

1. B.F. Skinner - Operant Conditioning



2. Pavlov - Classical Conditioning / Dogs & Feeding

B.F. Skinner

- Operant Conditioning -> How can we condition


behavior?


- Positive or negative reinforcement/punishment


- Skinner Box - experiment performed with rats that showed that consequences of actions will determine outcome


- Extinction -> decrease a previous behavior by weakening the conditioned response