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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
- the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts
- "a cutting up"
Dissection
- the principal technique used to isolate and study the structural components or parts of the human body
Physiology
- the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts
Disease
- conditions that result from abnormalities of the body structure or function that prevent the body from maintaining the internal stability that keeps us alive and healthy
Pathology
- the scientific study of disease
- uses principles of anatomy and physiology to determine the nature of particular diseases
Levels of body organization
- move from the least complex (chemical) to the most complex (organism level)
Organization
- one of the most important characteristics of body structure
- the body itself is a single structure, but it is made up of trillions of smaller structures
- cells, tissues, organs, systems
Chemical Level
- atoms and molecules
- the existence of life depends on the proper levels and proportions of many chemical substances in the cells of the body
Cells
- the smallest "living" units of structure and function in our bodies
- they are still very complex
Tissues
- somewhat more complex than cells
- an organization of many cells (can be different types) that act together to perform a common function and/or form structure
- cells are held together by varying amounts and varieties of gluelike, nonliving intercellular substances
Organs
- larger and even more complex than tissues
- a group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so they can act together as a unit to perform a special function
- most organs are gross (large) structures
Systems
- the most complex units that make up the body
- an organization of varying numbers and kinds of organs arranged so that they can together perform complex functions for the body
Anatomical Position
- the way the body moves, its posture, or the relationship of one area when the body as a whole is in a specific position
- when the body is an erect or standing postion with the arms at the side and palms turned forward
- a reference position that gives meaning to the directional terms used to describe the body parts and regions
- uses directional terms
Prone
- used to describe the body when it is not in the anatomical position
- when the body is lying face downward
Supine
- used to descrbe the body when it is not in the anatomical position
- when the body is lying face upward
Superior
- towards the head
- upper or above
Inferior
- towards the feet
- lower or below
Anterior
- front or in front of
- ventral
Posterior
- back or in back of
- dorsal
Medial
- towards the midline of the body
Lateral
- towards the side of the body or away from its midline
Proximal
- toward or nearest the trunk of the body
- nearest the point of origin of one of its parts
Distal
- away from or farthest from the trunk or point of origin of a body part
Superficial
- nearer the surface
Deep
- farther away from the body surface
Body Planes
- subdivisions of body
- facilitates the study of individual organs and the body as a whole
Sagittal
- a lengthwise plane running down from front to back
- divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides
Midsagittal
- divides the body into two equal halves
Frontal
- Coronal
- a lengthwise plane running from side to side
- divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior (front and back) portions
Transverse
- a horizontal or crosswise plane
- divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower portions
Body Cavities
- the body is not a solid structure
- it is made up of open spaces or cavities that contain compact, well-ordered arrangements of internal organs
Two major body cavities
- ventral and dorsal
Upper Ventral Cavity
- includes the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and the pleural cavity
Lower Ventral Cavity
- includes the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity (together form the abdominopelvic cavity)
Diaphragm
- separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
- a muscular sheet
- dome-shaped
- the most important muscle for breathing
Mediastinum
- a midportion of the thoracic cavity
- physically separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
- includes the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, and blood vessels
Pleural Cavities
- subdivisions of the thoracic cavity
- on the either side of the thoracic cavity
- includes the lungs
Abdominopelvic Cavity
- made up of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
- there isn't an actual physical partition
- separated in 4 quadrants
Thoracic Cavity
- chest cavity
- includes the mediastinum and the pleural cavities
4 Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
- right upper or superior
- right lower or inferior
- left upper or superior
- left lower or inferior
- frequently used for locating the origin of pain or describing the location of a tumor or other abnormality
9 Subdivisions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
- Upper Regions
- Middle Regions
- Lower Regions
Upper Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
- Right Hypochondriac Region
- Left Hypochondriac Region
- Epigastric Region
- lies above the abdomen at the level of the ninth rib cartilages
Middle Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
- Right Lumbar Region
- Left Lumbar Region
- Umbilical Region
- lies below the ninth rib cartilages and above the top of the hip bones
Lower Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
- Right Iliac Region
- Left Iliac Region
- Hypogastric Region
- lies below the hip bones
Dorsal Cavity
- includes the cranial and spinal cavities
Cranial Cavity
- the space inside the skull that contains the brain
Spinal Cavity
- the space inside the spinal column
- contains the spinal cord
Pelvic Cavity
- includes the liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, parts of the large intestine
Abdominal Cavity
- includes the lower (sigmoid) colon, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs