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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Code of Hammurabi of ancient Babylon
In the 18th century B.C., the Babylonian King Hammurabi fashioned a compendium of 282 laws that set standards of conduct and justice for his empire in ancient Mesopotamia. Etched on an imposing seven-and-a-half-foot diorite pillar, or stele, the commands covered everything from property rights and criminal behavior to slavery and divorce, and promised brutal punishments for all who disobeyed. These famous pre-Biblical laws helped shape Babylonian life in Hammurabi’s time, but their influence would echo throughout the ancient world for over a millennia.
Most early civilizations of afro-Eurasia arose in physical environments that featured:

proximity to a reliable freshwater source that could be used for crop irrigation

In what ways did the migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples into many regions of sub-Saharan Africa in the period 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D. most fundamentally affect the continent?

(comp 001)

the migrations led to the spread of settled agriculture
Effects of Crusades on western Europe? (Comp 002)

Crusades let to an increased trade between western Europe, Byzantium and the muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean, thereby promoting European economic expansion
Mongol Conquests?

Beginning in 1211 CE, Genghis Khan (given name, Temujin) and his nomadic armies burst from Mongolia and swiftly conquered most of Eurasia.

Brought Black Death but also helped reopen Silk Road

Silk Roads?
trading routes between China and Europe, increasing cultural exchange and wealth all along the trade paths.
Norman Conquest

The overthrow of the government of England in 1066 by forces of Normandy, a province of northern France, under the leadership of William the Conqueror. William proclaimed himself king of England after defeating the English King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
Significance of Charlemagne?

Charlemagne (c.742-814), also known as Karl and Charles the Great, was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. In 771, Charlemagne became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western Germany.

the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.


Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the name for the organization of the economy in the Middle Ages. The economy relied mainly on agriculture. Manorialism describes how land was distributed and who profited from the land.

an effect of the Crusades on western Europe?

The Crusades had a net positive economic effect on the development of western Europe. The Crusader states served important trade entrepôts and increased both the volume and the variety of trade between Asia and western Europe. The Crusades were beneficial for the economies of Italian maritime city-states, such as Venice and Genoa, whose merchants established themselves as the primary European intermediaries for the long-distance Asian luxury trade with Europe. The Crusades also indirectly contributed to the development and growth of credit in western Europe, as many rulers had to seek private loans to finance their armies.

describes a major impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe?

New World crops such as corn, potatoes, beans, tomatoes and peppers began to be widely cultivated in Europe in the 1600s and 1700s and became important sources of carbohydrates, protein and vitamins in the diets of Europeans. Some New World plants, such as corn, also became significant fodder crops in Europe, giving a boost to European meat and dairy production and consumption.

most significant effect on Europe of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (1453) and the eastern Mediterranean (1516–1517)?

The Ottoman Empire took control of most of the major trade routes connecting Europe to India and China...

the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, followed by the Levant and Egypt in 1517, gave the empire control of most of the major trade routes used by Europeans to import luxury items, such as spices, from India, China and the East Indies. This near-monopoly was short-lived, however; European merchants and explorers soon expanded direct sea trade with South and East Asia via the newly established trade routes around the southern tip of Africa.

Martin Luther
German Priest. Led the Protestant Reformation

Black Death

The Black Death was an epidemic outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe around 1348 that killed between one-third and two-thirds of the population in less than five years. The epidemic spanned from China to England to North Africa, transmitted along the Silk Road and other trade routes.
Leonardo Da Vinci

Leading figure of Italian Renaissance

Decolonization is defined as the act of getting rid of colonization, or freeing a country from being dependent on another country. An example of decolonization is India becoming independent from England after World War II
Napoléon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and its associated wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815.
Simon Bolivar

Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military leader who was instrumental in the revolutions against the Spanish empire