Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/70

Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A galaxy contains
a. primarily planets.
b. large amounts of gas and dust but very few stars.
c. large amounts of gas, dust, and stars.
d. a single star and planets.
e. gas, dust but no stars.
c. large amounts of gas, dust and stars.
Scientific notation is used in science because
a. it makes it easy to write large or small numbers.
b. all astronomical distances are expressed only in metric units.
c. it makes conversions between units easy.
d. all of the above.
e. none of the above.
a. it makes it east to write large or small numbers.
The average distance from Earth to the sun is
a. 1 light-year
b. 1 million km
c. 1 million miles
d. 1 billion km
e. 1 Astronomical Unit (A.U.)
e. 1 Astronomical Unit (A.U)
The sun is
a. a star.
b. 1 AU from Earth.
c. more than 100 times the diameter of Earth.
d. all of the above.
e. none of the above.
d. all of the above
The Milky Way Galaxy
a. contains about 100 stars.
b. is the largest known object in the universe.
c. is about 75,000-100,000 light-years in diameter.
d. is located about 2.2 million light years from the sun.
e. Only a. and c. are correct.
c. is about 75,000-100,000 light years in diameter.
Which of the following is the largest?
a. the diameter of Earth
b. the diameter of the moon
c. the diameter of the sun
d. the diameter of Jupiter
e. the distance from Earth to the sun
e. the distance from Earth to the sun
Which sequence is correct when ordered smallest to largest in size?
a. Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, galaxy clusters
b. Solar System, Earth, galaxy clusters, Milky Way
c. Earth, Milky Way, Solar System, galaxy clusters
d. Galaxy clusters, Solar System, Milky Way, Earth
a. Earth, Solar System, Milky Way, galaxy clusters
How is a planet different than a star?
a. Planets are larger than stars.
b. Planets reflect light while stars produce their own light.
c. Stars move faster in the sky than planets.
d. Planets are brighter than stars.
b. Planets reflect light while stars produce their own light.
If we say that an object is 1,000 light-years away we see it
a. as it looked 1,000 years ago.
b. as it will look 1,000 years from now.
c. as it looked 1,000 light-years ago.
d. as it is right now, but it appears 1,000 times dimmer.
a. as it looked 1,000 years ago.
In one way of naming stars, a ______________ letter indicates its brightness relative to the other stars in the constellation.
a. English
b. Arabic
c. Greek
d. Cyrillic
c. Greek
A constellation must consist of a number of stars, all
a. at the same distance from the Earth.
b. at various different distances from the Earth.
c. within a boundary in the same general angular area of the sky.
d. Wrong! Constellations are made of planets only.
c. within a boundary in the same general angular area of the sky.
The popular names of the brightest stars usually come from
a. ancient Arabic.
b. ancient English.
c. Latin.
d. Russian.
e. Chinese.
a. ancient Arabic.
The magnitude scale
a. originated just after the telescope was invented.
b. can be used to indicate the apparent brightness of a celestial object.
c. is used to measure the temperature of a star.
d.. was used to determine the rate of precession.
b. can be used to indicate the apparent brightness of a celestial object.
Which star in the table to the right would appear the brightest to an observer on Earth?
a. Per
b. CMa
c. Nim
d. Dra
b. CMa (with an apparent visual magnitude of -1.46)
Which star in the previous table would not be visible to the naked eye?
a. Per
b. CMa
c. Nim
d. Dra
c. Nim (with an apparent visual magnitude of 8.07, the naked eye limit is 6)
Seen from the northern latitudes, the star Polaris
a. is never above the horizon.
b. always sets directly in the west.
c. is always above the northern horizon.
d. is never visible during the winter.
e. is the brightest star in the sky.
c. is always above the northern horizon.
The celestial equator is
a. a line around the sky directly above Earth's equator.
b. the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres.
c. the path that the sun appears to follow on the celestial sphere as Earth orbits the sun.
d. a and b.
e. a and c.
d. a and b.
What causes summer here in the northern hemisphere? In the summer
a. the Earth is closer to the sun.
b. the Earth's northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun.
c. the Earth's northern hemisphere is tilted away from the sun.
b. the Earth's northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun.
Precession of the rotation axis of Earth takes _______________to complete a cycle.
a. 24 hours
b. one year
c. 260 years
d. 26,000 years
e. 260,000 years
d. 26,000 years
The inclination of the axis of the earth varies from 22° to 24° degrees taking __________ to complete a cycle.
a. 24 hours
b. 1 year
c. 499 years
d. 41,000 years
e. Wrong! The Earth’s axis tilt is fixed at 23.50.
d. 41,000 years
The elliptical shape of the Earth’s orbit varies with time and takes _______________to complete a cycle.
a. 24 hours
b. one year
c. 260 years
d. 26,000 years
e. 100,000 years
e. 100,000 years
In the Milankovitch theory, the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit, its axis tilt, and axis precession vary with time. These combined at times to create ____________ on Earth.
a. day and night
b. seasonal temperature variations
c. daily temperature variations
d. ice ages
e. the constellations
d. ice ages
According to the theory of general relativity, gravity is caused by
a. the equivalence principle.
b. the change in mass of a moving body.
c. the curvature of space-time.
d. the constant speed of light.
e. none of the above.
c. the curvature of space-time
One of the first tests of the general theory of relativity was
a. the description of the orbit of the moon.
b. the determination of the speed of light to be constant.
c. the change in mass of a particle moving at a high speed.
d. the demonstration of a hammer and a feather falling at the same rate on the moon.
e. the determination of the rate of advance of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit.
e. the determination of the rate of advance of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit.
Due to the curvature of space-time by the sun, light from stars that passes near the edge of the sun will
a. be bent so that the stars appear further from the edge of the sun than if space-time was not curved.
b. be bent so that the stars appear closer to the edge of the sun
than if space-time was not curved.
c. be bent so that the stars are no longer visible.
d. not be affected by the curvature of space-time.
a. be bent so that the stars appear further from the edge of the sun than if space-time was not curved.
The force due to gravity between two objects depends on
a. the mass of each object.
b. the distance each object is from Earth.
c. the distance between the two objects.
d. the speed of light.
e. a and c
e. a and c
Which type of curve would accurately represent a closed orbit?
a. ellipse
b. hyperbola
c. parabola
d. straight line
a. ellipse
The second postulate of special relativity states that
a. observers cannot detect their uniform motion except relative to other objects.
b. observers cannot distinguish locally between inertial forces due to acceleration and uniform gravitational
forces due to the presence of a massive body.
c. the laws of physics are the same for all observers, no matter what their motion, as long as they are not
accelerating.
d. the speed of light is constant and will be the same for all observers independent of
their motion relative to the light source.
e. the acceleration of an object is proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to its mass.
d. the speed of light is constant and will be the same for all observers independent of their motion relative to the light source.
____________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
a. Gamma-rays
b. Ultraviolet light
c. Infrared radiation
d. X-rays
e. a, b and d above
c. Infrared radiation
____________ has (have) wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.
a. Gamma-rays
b. Ultraviolet light
c. Infrared radiation
d. Radio
e. a and b
e. a and b
Astronomers build optical telescopes on tops of mountains because
a. there is less air to dim the light.
b. the seeing is better.
c. CCDs work better when there is less oxygen in the air.
d. all of the above
e. a and b
e. a and b
The ability of a telescope to resolve fine detail is known as the telescope’s ____________________.
a. light gathering power
b. focal
c. resolving power
d. telescope detailing
e. aberration
c. resolving power
Infrared astronomy is often done from high-flying aircraft because
a. infrared telescopes only need to get above the ozone layer.
b. infrared radiation is absorbed by water vapor low in Earth's atmosphere.
c. infrared photons are quite energetic.
d. infrared telescopes are not very heavy.
e. infrared sources are very bright.
b. infrared radiation is absorbed by water vapor low in Earth's atmosphere.
The technique called ______________ uses a high-speed computer to monitor atmospheric distortion and adjust the optics of a telescope to partially compensate for the seeing.
a. photometry
b. chromatic aberration
c. active optics
d. spherical aberration
e. adaptive optics
e. adaptive optics
A telescope that suffers from chromatic aberration and has a low light gathering power is most likely
a. a small diameter reflecting telescope.
b. a small diameter refracting telescope.
c. a large diameter refracting telescope.
d. a large diameter reflecting telescope.
e. the Hubble Space Telescope
b. a small diameter refracting telescope
A __________ is used to produce and analyze a spectrum. a. photo
b. spectrograph
c. photometer
d. charge-coupled device
b. spectrograph
The light gathering power of a telescope is directly proportional to
a. the diameter of the primary mirror or lens.
b. the focal length of the primary mirror or lens.
c. the ratio of the focal lengths of its primary mirror or lens and its eyepiece.
d. the length of the telescope tube.
e. the diameter of the eyepiece.
a. the diameter of the primary mirror or lens.
A light-year is the distance light travels in one year.
A. True
The sun is a star in the Milky Way Galaxy.
A. True
Hipparchus devised the magnitude system in the late 1700’s.
B. False
The moon and visible planets are always within a few degrees of the ecliptic.
A. True
As Earth spins on its axis each day, circumpolar stars appear to rotate around the north celestial pole.
A. True
The force due to gravity has the mathematical form:
F= - GMm/ r^2
A. True
The law of gravitation is termed universal because it is a property of all material objects.
A. True
The apparent positions of stars around the sun during an eclipse have been used to prove the general theory of relativity.
A. True
Light can behave as a particle or as a wave.
A. True
The amount of energy a photon carries depends on its wavelength.
A. True
The largest optical telescope ever constructed was a refracting telescope.
B. False
X-rays easily penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground from space.
B. False
The light-gathering power of a telescope increases as the size of the objective increases.
True
Which arrangement is in order of increasing size, left to right?
a. planet, galaxy, star, solar system
b. planet, star, galaxy, solar system
c. planet, star, solar system, galaxy
d. solar system, galaxy, star, planet
c. planet, star, solar system, galaxy
____ is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Majoris.
Alpha Majoris
The ______ produce(s) tides on the Earth.
a. moon alone
b. sun alone
c. both moon and sun
c. both moon and sun
The ______ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above any observer.
a. north celestial pole
b. south celestial pole
c. Zenith
d. celestial equator
e. Asterism
c. Zenith
An observer in the Northern Hemisphere takes a time exposure photograph of the night sky. If the illustration depicts the photograph taken by the observer, which direction was the camera pointing?
a. straight north
b. straight east
c. straight south
d. straight west
e. straight up, directly overhead
a. straight north
Spring tides occur
a. at new moon and first quarter moon
b. at first quarter and third quarter moons.
c. at new moon and full moon.
d. at third quarter and full moons.
e. at noon and at midnight
c. at new moon and full moon
A solar system contain
a. primarily planets
b. large amounts of gas and dust but very few stars
c. large amounts of gas, dust and stars
d. a single star and planets.
e. thousands of superclusters
d. a single star and planets.
The sun moves ________ along the ecliptic among the stars.
a. eastward
b. westward
c. The sun does not appear to move
a. eastward
If the nearest star is 4.2 light-years away, then
a. the star is 4.2 million AU away.
b. the light we see left the star 4.2 years ago
c. the star must have formed 4.2 billion years ago
d. the star must be very young
e. the star must be very old.
b. the light we see left the star 4.2 years ago
The diagram below illustrates the orbit of a satellite around Earth. Which letter indicates the location of perigee?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. Perigee is the time to complete an orbit
c. C
The apparent visual magnitude of a star is a measure of the star's
a. size
b. brightness
c. distance
d. color
e. temperature
b. brightness
A second magnitude star in Ursa Major is brighter than a fourth magnitude star in Orion.
A. True
The Local Group contain the sun and only about 2 dozed other stars.
b. False
A supercluster refers to a large group of stars within the Milky Way.
b. False
The lunar tides on Earth are making the moon recede from Earth.
a. True
Precession of Earth's axis causes the star we call Polaris to change.
a True
Reflecting telescopes are no longer popular with astronomers because they are expensive and suffer from chromatic aberration.
b. False
Polaris has always been the star nearest the north celestial pole.
b. False
The celestial equator always passes directly overhead.
b. False
Isac Newton invented the reflecting telescope.
a. True