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24 Cards in this Set

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Chant
(1) Unison unaccompanied song, particularly that of the Latin LITURGY (also called PLAINCHANT). (2) The repertory of unaccompanied liturgical songs of a particular RITE. (page 4)
Ethos
(Greek, 'character') (1) Moral and ethical character or way of being or behaving. (2) Character, mood, or emotional effect of a certain tonos, MODE, METER, or MELODY. (page 4)
Lyre
Plucked string instrument with a resonating sound box, two arms, crossbar, and strings that run parallel to the soundboard and attach to the crossbar. (page 5)
Notation
A system for writing down musical sounds, or the process of writing down music. The principal notation systems of European music use a staff of lines and signs that define the pitch, duration, and other qualities of sound. (page 6)
Polyphony
Music or musical TEXTURE consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent MELODY. See also COUNTERPOINT. (page 10)
Scholasticism
System of teaching predominant in the Middle Ages based chiefly upon the authority of the Church Fathers, as well as of Aristotle and his commentators. (page 11)
Heterophony
Music or musical TEXTURE in which a MELODY is performed by two or more parts simultaneously in more than one way, for example, one voice performing it simply, and the other with embellishments. (page 16)
Improvisation
Spontaneous invention of music while performing, including devising VARIATIONS, embellishments, or accompaniments for existing music. (page 16)
Monophony
Music or musical TEXTURE consisting of unaccompanied MELODY. (page 16)
Rhythm
(1) Music's movement in time. (2) A particular arrangement of short and long durations. (page 16)
Aulos
Ancient Greek reed instrument, usually played in pairs. (page 17)
Kithara
Ancient Greek string instrument, a large LYRE. (page 17)
Tetrachord
(from Greek, 'four strings') (1) In Greek and medieval theory, a SCALE of four NOTES spanning a perfect fourth. (2) In modern theory, a set of four pitches or PITCH-CLASSES. (3) In TWELVE-TONE theory, the first four, middle four, or last four notes in the ROW. (page 17)
Imitation
(1) In POLYPHONIC music, the device of repeating (imitating) a MELODY or MOTIVE announced in one part in one or more other parts, often at a different pitch level and sometimes with minor MELODIC or rhythmic alterations. Usually the voices enter with the element that is imitated, although sometimes imitation happens within the middle of a segment of melody. (2) The act of patterning a new work after an existing work or style; especially, to borrow much of the existing work's material. (page 18)
Harmonia
(pl. harmoniai) Ancient Greek concept having multiple related meanings: (1) the union of parts in an orderly whole; (2) SCALE type. (page 19)
Chromatic
(in ancient Greek music) (from Greek chroma, 'color') (1) In ancient Greek music, adjective describing a TETRACHORD comprising a minor third and two SEMITONES, or a MELODY that uses such tetrachords. (2) Adjective describing a melody that uses two or more successive semitones in the same direction, a SCALE consisting exclusively of semitones, an INTERVAL or CHORD that draws NOTES from more than one DIATONIC scale, or music that uses many such melodies or chords. (page 19)
Pythagorean intonation
A system of tuning NOTES in the SCALE, common in the Middle Ages, in which all perfect fourths and fifths are tuned according to the ratios 4:3 and 3:2. (page 19)
Musica mundana
musica humana
musica instrumentalis
Chant dialect
One of the repertories of ecclesiastical CHANT, including GREGORIAN, BYZANTINE, AMBROSIAN, and OLD ROMAN CHANT. (page 23)
Liturgy
The prescribed body of texts to be spoken or sung and ritual actions to be performed in a religious service. (page 23)
Mass
(from Latin missa) (1) The most important service in the Roman Church. (2) A musical work setting the texts of the ORDINARY of the Mass, typically KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI. (page 23)
Psaltery
A plucked string instrument whose strings are attached to a frame over a wooden sounding board. (page 24)
Ambrosian chant
A repertory of ecclesiastical CHANT used in Milan. (page 25)
Old Roman chant
A repertory of ecclesiastical CHANT preserved in eleventh- and twelfth-century manuscripts from Rome representing a local tradition; a near relative of GREGORIAN CHANT. (page 25)