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135 Cards in this Set

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Three-site pork production system (farrow to finish)

Site 1: Breeding/gestation/farrowing

Site 2: Nursery - 3 wks until pigs about 50 lbs

Site 3: Grower/finisher

Classic for big companies.

Also All in/All out, Specialized (farrowing/weaner-grower/finisher), and Specific Pathogen Free systems

Misc. bolded pig facts

-Market weight:260-290 lbs

-ADG: 1.7 lbs/day

-Normal temp 102

-Gestation 113-115 d

-Heat needed in nursery, 80-90

-Adults prefer temps 60-75

-Improvest: GFRtoxoid, chemical castration, prevents males from entering puberty

-Essential amino acid lysine

-Before PE asses posture, attitude, BCS, environment

-Necropsy important diagnostic resource!

-Biosecurity is a big deal



Greasy Pig Disease

Greasy Pig Disease

Greasy pig disease (Staph. hyicus)

Usually 1 -4 wks, can cause high mortality within some litters

Starts off head/snout progresses to greasy crusts over whole body.

Culture +/- biopsy. Prevent abrasions, improve sanitation, antibiotics (Penicillin)

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea

Porcine juvenile pustular psoriasiform dermatitis - unknown etiology

Young (2-5 months) white weaners.

No mortality. Not transmissable.

Coalescing red plaques mainly on abdomen. Non-pruritic, no change in ROG.

Biopsy. Recover spontaneously.



(Zn deficiency)

All ages.

High morbidity, no mortality.

Symmetrical non-pruritic, scaling and crusting; worst on ventrum.

Feed analysis. Give Zn supplement, decrease Ca, add oil

Swine Pox

Swine Pox


Sucklings, high morbidity/low mortality - may be associated with Haematopinus suis

Papules, vesicles, circular scabs -generalized distribution mostly sparing m-c junctions

Biopsy for CIB R/O for SVE,FMD,VS

Spontaneous recovery- control lice

Food and Mouth Disease

Food and Mouth Disease


All ages. Highly contagious.

CxAs for VS: Vesicles, erosions which affect feet, snout, mcjns.

Contact feds

Seneca Valley Virus

Seneca Valley Virus


All ages

Cx as for VS (Vesicles, erosions which affect feet, snout, mcjns.)

Sometimes diarrhea in piglets.

No tx

Vesicular Stomatitis

Vesicular Stomatitis


All ages.

Probably insect vector.

Cx: Vesicles, erosions which affect feet, snout, mc jns.

Contact feds is suspect

VS. Affects horses.

Swine vesicular disease

Swine vesicular disease


All ages.

Highly contagious

Cx As for VS. (Vesicles, erosions which affect feet, snout, mc jns.)

Contact feds.

Swine vesicular exanthema

Swine vesicular exanthema


All ages.

Associated with garbage feeding.

Cx As for VS (Vesicles, erosions which affect feet, snout, mc jns.)

Contact feds



Erysipelothrix rhuseopathiae

Mainly feeders, adults, occ. weaners.

Rule out Actinobacillus suis.

Pyrexia then rhomboid/oval skin lesions.

Multisystemic disease, septicemia

Culture. Antibiotics: Penicillin, Tetracycline




Other septicemias (eg. Salmonellosis) Various Typical lesions are blotchy, cyanotic ventrum/extremities


Sarcoptic Mange

Sarcoptic Mange

Usually feeders but occ. Weaners, adults.


Thickened skin usually starts on ears/neck.


Repeat anti-parasitic treatment in 10-14 d.

Skin necrosis of piglets

Sucklings. High morbidity.

Bilateral ulcers on carpus, hock, coronet, ant. teats

Visual inspection.

Correct flooring and treat topically.

Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome

Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome

Usually weaners, feeders.

Low morbidity/high mortality.

Red plaques, especially over ham and thigh but can affect whole body.

Sick, febrile pigs! Septicemia

Histopathology of necrotizing vasculitis and concurrent glomerular lesions.

Control circovirus, associated

Other common skin lesions

Aural hematomas

Ear tip necrosis

Non-specific cyanosis that occurs with many conditions (eg. Porcine Stress Syndrome, sepsis, various toxicities).



Approach to neonatal diarrhea

1 - get a history, patterns are important

2 - assess environment

3 - assess patients

4 - collect samples

5 - treatment

Sample collection: bacterial, viral, parasitic

Feces and loops of SI/LI for culture - bacti

Stomach, SI, LI - histo

Fecal material - PCR and floatation

Special considerations for diarrhea workup in neonates

-ileal scrapings to diagnose pre-patent coccidiosis

-clostridial diseases USUALLY have distinct gross lesions

-other diseases just see dehydrated pigs with yellow watery scour and dilated loops of SI

Transmissable gastroenteritis (TGE)

Transmissable gastroenteritis (TGE)


Can affect any age if herd naive. Most severe in piglets < 1 month.

VOMITING, diarrhea and high mortality in piglets.

Sows may also be anorexic, vomiting.

PCR, direct EM of feces.

Can be difficult Dx in enzootic herds.

Histo of marked atrophy of villi.

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED)

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED)

Diarrhea in all ages but mortality mainly in sucklings.

A rule out for TGE - is another coronavirus.

Reached USA in 2013. Currently 3 strains

Reportable disease.

Does well in cold weather.

Can spread via feed, air.

Rotaviral enteritis

Rotaviral enteritis

Typically less than 3 wks but can rarely affects pigs up to 8 wks.

Scouring, poorly-gaining pigs.

Low mortality unless complicated by other factors.

Demonstrate virus via EM, ELISA on feces or FAT on gut section.

Atrophic villi.

Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis 

Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis

Usually affects piglets less than 1 week old.

Acute deaths.

Severely hemorrhagic/necrotic intestines at pm.

Histo plus Gram stain of mucosal smear showing large # of Gram + rods

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile

Rare disease affecting pigs < 3wks.

Usually sudden death +/- diarrhea.

Mesocolonic edema, fibrinonecrotizing colitis.

Dx by demonstrating toxin

Enterotoxigenic strains of E.coli in neonates

EnteroTOXIGENIC strains of E.coli in neonates

Enteric colibacillosis (Escherichia coli)

Less than 2 weeks old.

Able to attach to brush border and secrete toxins that cause secretory diarrhea

Depending on strain may be found dead or have watery to blood-tinged stool.

Occ. vomiting.

Dehydrated with dilated loops of SI.

Pure culture of an enterotoxigenic serotype, plus histo.

PCR for adherence factors



(Isospora suis)

Less than 3 weeks old, typically at 7-10 d.

White scour with high morbidity, low mortality. Intestinal smears, fecal floats, histo to demonstrate organisms.

Main diarrheic agents in neonates

1. Coccidiosis (isospora suis)

2. Ecoli (enterotoxigenic strains)

3. Rotavirus

4. Coronavirus (TGE, PED)


Know distribution of pathogens in GIT

Know if diarrhea is associated with blood

ENTEROTOXIGENIC post-weaning E. coli enteritis (common)

EnteroTOXIGENIC post-weaning E. coli enteritis

Common, 1- 3 weeks after weaning.

Loose stool, poor gain, some mortalities.

Cyanosis change late in disease course.

Attach to brush border, toxin secretion, secretory diarrhea

Pure culture of enterotoxigenic serotypes + histo.

May see gastric infarct at pm.

EnteroPATHOGENIC post-weaning E. coli enteritis


Attaching and effacing strains may also contribute to diarrhea in weaned pigs

No enterotoxin production = enteropathogenic

EnteroTOXEMIC post-weaning E. coli enteritis

(Edema Disease)

EnteroTOXEMIC post-weaning E. coli enteritis

(Edema Disease)

Shiga toxin production, absorbed into the bloodstream

Toxin targets vessel walls and makes them leaky, leads to edema

Most cases are NOT DIARRHEIC



S. choleraesuis or typhimurium strains most common

All ages susceptible but typically affects growers and finishers.

Carrier pigs common - shed when stressed.

Fecal oral transmission.

Septicemic form and intestinal form

Acute intestinal form features PYREXIA, enteritis of SI and LI, enlarged mesenteric nodes, often gastric infarct.

BUTTON ULCERS (shown) due to chronic scouring


Culture node, gut, liver.


Septicemic form often NOT accompanied by diarrhea


Widespread thrombosis/infarction

Multifocal hepatitis, pneumonia, "turkey egg" kidney (shown), splenomegaly

Rectal stricture in chronic cases (end-artery thrombosis)

Rx Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Neomycin)

Proliferative enteropathies (Lawsonia intracellularis)

Proliferative enteropathies

(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Proliferative enteropathy complex (chronic)

+Acute hemorrhagic form

Intracellular curved rods on silver-stained histo slide.


Rx with Ab in feed/water i.e. Tylosin

Oral vaccine available.

Subclinical disease common

 Porcine Proliferative Enteritis 
(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Porcine Proliferative Enteritis

(Lawsonia intracellularis)

= intestinal adenomatosis, = necrotic ileitis

Usually older than one month (weaners/growers) Not seen in adults

Thickened terminal ileum +/- colon.

Initially see diarrhea +/- fibrin casts

Weight loss is main clinical sign

A small percentage of the group will go on to be unthrifty

Necrotic ileitis 
(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Necrotic ileitis

(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Secondary bacterial colonization --> necrosis

Chronic diarrhea, weight loss, poor do-ers

Proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy 
(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy

(Lawsonia intracellularis)

Acute hemorrhagic form (uncommon)

Bloody stool

Presents as weakness, pallor/unanticipated sudden death

Often affects 6 month old gilts

Swine Dysentery 
(Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)

Swine Dysentery

(Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)

Variable mortality but usually high morbidity.

Organism can survive in manure pits, be carried by rodents or transmitted by fomites but disease can be eradicated.

Severe weight loss, anorexia, low grade fever, dehydration

+/- Mucoid diarrhea with flecks of BLOOD to grey/black soupy stool

Superficial fibrinonecrotic typhlocolitis, spares SI.

Culture is difficult. Often Dx by fresh smear + compatible histo.

PCR of colonic mucosa best

Rx - Abx i.e. Lincomycin, Tiamulin

Porcine colonic spirochetosis(Brachyspira pilosicoli)

Porcine colonic spirochetosis

(Brachyspira pilosicoli)

Growing pigs, often just after weaning.

Negligible mortality but can have high morbidity.

Soft stool, poor rate of gain are main clinical signs (decreased VFA absorption from inflamed colon)

Transient diarrhea which progresses to a loose cow-pie like stool

Can demonstrate bacteria adherent to colonic surface in sacrificed acute cases.

Culture difficult.


Rx Lincomycin, Tiamulin, Tylosin


(Trichuris suis)


(Trichuris suis)

Any age of weaned pig including adult.

Direct life cycle. Ova can survive 6 yrs.

Anorexia, weight loss, mucoHEMORRHAGIC diarrhea.

Fecal float.

Mucohemorrhagic typhlitis with mature worms at necropsy.

Misc. GI diseases

-Mesenteric torsions (hemorrhagic bowel)

-Bloat and gastric torsions (mortality in sows)

-Classical swine fever (causes bloody diarrhea)

-Mycotoxins (vomiting, like with TGE)

-Gastric ulcers (frank blood in stomach, melenic stool), extremely common in finishing pigs due to feed, stress, etc.

Blood in the stool of weaned pigs? (hemorrhagic typhlocolotis)

-Salmonellosis, acute intestinal or septicemic

-Lawsonia, acute hemorrhagic form

-Swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)

-Ascaris suum (hookworms)

-Trichuris suis (whipworms)

-Classical swine fever



"Congenital tremor" Myoclonia congenita

(dancing pig disease)

Hypomyelination/demyelination problem in pre-weaned pigs

Various causes including circovirus type I but most are idiopathic

Classical Swine Fever (pestivirus) =Hog cholera

High morbidity/variable mortality

Multisystemic disease (bloody diarrhea) but may present as CNS problem

Report to Feds if suspect hog cholera

Main CNS diseases affecting NEONATES

-Hypoglycemia, not enough milk from sow

-Pseudorabies (multisystemic, affects neonates most severely)

-Classical Swine Fever/Hog Cholera, reportable

Pseudorabies (herpesvirus) (Aujesky’s disease)

Pseudorabies (herpesvirus) (Aujesky’s disease)

Any age but Cx vary with age and previous exposure.

Mortality high in neonates.

<4wks: ataxia, seizures, opisthotonus. Sudden death common.

>4 wks signs less severe in adults, abortion and respiratory disease may predominate.

Multifocal necrosis

Virus identification via FA, isolation, etc.


Contact Feds if suspected

Strep. suis

Strep. suis

All ages susceptible but usually nursing and weaned pigs.

Tonsillar carriers.

Type II strains are potentially zoonotic.

Causes septicemia but localization in meninges is common-->opisthotonus, paddling, incoordination, etc.

Fever, lameness, lateral recumbency

Lesions: fibrinous polyserositis (meningitis), septicemia (hemorrhages)


Abx: Tetracycline, Enrofloxacin, Ceftiofur, (penicillin resistance)

Avoid mixing of age groups. Clean instruments, etc.

Glasser’s disease 

(Haemophilus parasuis)

Glasser’s disease

(Haemophilus parasuis)

3wk - 4m. (weaned)

Older pigs if “high health” herds.


Causes a fibrinous polyserositis (Bacterial meningoencephalitis)

Sudden death common.


Abx: Tetracycline, Enrofloxacin

Vaccines are available (efficacy?)

Edema disease (E. coli)

Edema disease (E. coli)

Shiga-like toxin (Stx-2e)

Usually 1 -3 wks post-weaning.

High mortality/low morbidity but this is quite variable.

Often no scours

Abnormal squeal, SQ edema of eyelids, snout, ataxia, lateral recumbency with paddling.

Necropsy findings (mesocolonic edema, etc.) and positive culture.

Antibiotic Rx (Aminoglycosides, Amoxicillin/Ampicillin), change feeding, use toxin neg. probiotic

Main CNS disease affecting WEANED PIGS

Bacterial meningoencephalitis (Strep suis, Glasser's disease)

Edema disease

Salt toxicity

Edema disease

Edema disease


Edema disease (E. coli) Shiga-like toxin (Stx-2e) Usually 1 -3 wks post-weaning.

High mortality/low morbidity but this is quite variable.

Often no scours

Abnormal squeal, SQ edema of eyelids, snout, ataxia, lateral recumbency with paddling.

Necropsy findings (mesocolonic edema, etc.) and positive culture.

Antibiotic Rx (Aminoglycosides, Amoxicillin/Ampicillin), change feeding, use toxin neg. probiotic

Salt Toxicity (water deprivation)

Salt Toxicity (water deprivation)

Any age.

History of water deprivation or exposure to salts Characteristic sequence of tremors, unconsciousness, transient recovery.

Rx with small amounts of water; mannitol or hypertonic saline

Necropsy diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis.

Selenium Toxicosis

Selenium Toxicosis

Sudden onset - usually feeder pigs.

Clinical signs do not ensue until feed has been ingested for several days.

Hind end paresis in the majority of pigs in a group.

Feed analysis.

Histopathology of cavitating lesion in ventral horns of thoracolumbar cord


-Always consider epidemiology of problem

-Stir pigs up to uncover respiratory signs

-Look for "thumpers" - pigs in severe respiratory distress

-Anemia is an important R/O for respiratory distress in piglets

-Don't forget role of the environment!

Sneezing Pigs

Sneezing Pigs

-Cytomegalovirus - piglets only!

- PRRS (Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome) - concurrent respiratory distress, poor growth

- Swine influenza


- Pseudorabies (more neuro)

- Atrophic rhinitis - not seen until weaning age

Atrophic Rhinitis

Atrophic Rhinitis

B. bronchiseptica = non-progressive form

Toxigenic Pasteurella multocida = progressive

Usually 3wk - 4m pigs but residual changes in adults. Carrier state.

Multifactorial disease. Very common.

Sneezing, snorting, nasal discharge, tearing. Snout deviation.

Poor growth, secondary pneumonia may be seen.

Slaughter inspection at PM1/2. Nasal swab cultures. Vaccination. Eradication programs are possible.

Inclusion body rhinitis

Inclusion body rhinitis

Swine Herpes Virus-2 = cytomegalovirus

Suckling pigs infected by sows - aerosol or urine Sneezing, snuffling, mouth-breathing

NIB in nasal smears.

Recovery in 2 -3 wks so no Rx

Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex

-Causes of coughing and dyspnea in WEANED PIGS

-Swine Influenza


-Pseudorabies (more neuro)

-Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCAD)

-Hog Cholera (Classical/African Swine Fever)

Cause an interstitial pneumonia (lungs fail to collapse, meaty, wet, heavy)

Can be complicated by secondary bacterial infections

Often need serology, detection of viral antigens to dx

No tx but some vaccines available

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

Swine influenza (Influenza type A, many serotypes - H1N1, H3N2)

High morbidity/low mortality, broad age range.

Aerosol trans. Zoonotic potential?

High fever, sneezing, moist cough, conjunctivitis, anorexia

Serology. Nasal swab PCR. Demonstrate viral Ag/RNA in p.m. material.

Vaccines? Strain variation makes control via vaccination difficult

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory
Syndrome (Arterivirus)

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome


Poor growth and reproductive performance. High pre-weaning and nursery mortality (thumpers).

Most economically important disease in swine industry

Many transmission routes including aerosol, transplacental

Coughing, sneezing, abnormal respiration.

Death of alveolar macrophages permissive to secondary bacterial infections

Sows may suffer late term abortion, increased mummies and weak pigs.

Dx Rising titer. Demonstrate viral Ag/RNA, interstitial pneumonia at p.m. (Lung, tonsil, thymus)

Control efforts:"burn out", depopulation, air filters.

Vaccinate? Persistent infections, genomic instability (mutation).

Biosecurity critical.

Circovirus Associated Diseases
(Circovirus Type II)

Circovirus Associated Diseases

(Circovirus Type II)

Mostly weaned/ grower pigs but can cause abortion.

Infection is widespread but Cx less frequent. Spread by most secretions but cuts, abrasions also important.

Anorexia, polypnea, dyspnea, pallor, rough hair coat. Occasionally jaundice.

Poor growth, secondary infections common

Demonstrate viral Ag /DNA in association with lesions such as interstitial pneumonia and lymphadenopathy.

Hygiene, biosecurity, vaccines, controlling secondary infections important.

Pleuropneumonia (Actinobacillus



(Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae)

Usually 1- 5m old pigs.

High morbidity/mortality in naive herds.

Spread by via carrier animals.

Nose – nose contact, concurrent stress important

Pyrexia, stiffness-->mouth breathing, foamy blood-staining oronasal discharge and peripheral cyanosis.

Chronic cases feature slow growth, coughing. Culture of fibrinohemorrhagic pleuropneumonia at p.m.

Antibiotics for acute outbreak. (Tilmicosin, Enrofloxacin)

Vaccines available.


P. multocida (types A and D)

Pneumonic pasteurellosis

Pasturella multocida (types A and D)

Transmission via nose - nose contact.

Common inhabitant of turbinates.

Important secondary pathogen.

Coughing, dyspnea, poor growth.

“Hot” strains cause fever, prostration.

Rare septicemic form may cause arthritis, meningitis.

Culture. Suppurative bronchopneumonia at necropsy.

Treat acute cases with abx (Tilmicosin, Enrofloxacin, Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline)

Eliminate primary cause and improve air quality.




Enzootic pneumonia

(Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)

First Cx usually at >1m. Carrier animals critical. Spread mainly by direct contact.

Disease severity depends on concurrent stressors. (PRDC)

Persistent cough.

Decreased rate of gain and poor growth.

High morbidity and low mortality.

Culture at p.m. (Fish-fleshed AV lung). Serology. Slaughter checks helpful.

Antibiotic Rx: Tylosin, Tilmicosin, Nufluor, Lincomycin, Tiamulin.

NOT PENICILLIN (no cell wall).

Vaccines reduce lesion severity.

Fumonisin toxicosis (Fusarium moniliforme)

Fumonisin toxicosis

(Fusarium moniliforme)

Associated with feeding moldy corn –usually feeder pigs.

Acute toxicity causes dyspnea, cyanosis.

Subacute cases may develop hepatic lesions.

Hydrothorax, pulmonary edema at p.m..

Test feed for mycotoxin.

Important septicemic diseases of pigs

Strep. suis serotype 2

Haemophilus parasuis (Glasser’s disease)

Erysipelothrix rhuseopathiae



Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome


- Iron deficiency anemia

- Isoimmune thrombocytopenia

- Porcine Circovirus-associated disease

Iron deficiency anemia

- Rapid growth, poor reserves demand neonates be supplemented or hypochromic anemia develops.

- Iron injections within 3- 4 days of birth

- Oral iron supplements becoming more popular

Isoimmune hemolytic thrombocytopenia    

Isoimmune hemolytic thrombocytopenia

Reaction to colostral antibodies.

Widespread purpura, petechia in piglets lessthan 1 week old.

A rule out for sepsis.

Very young animal, can't clot, bleed out

Circovirus Associated Diseases
(Circovirus Type II)

Circovirus Associated Diseases(Circovirus Type II)

Weaners/growers. Slowly progressive weight loss, eventually die of secondary infection

Think circovirus if:

- Jaundice

- Large lymph nodes (Granulomatous lymphadenitis)

- interstitial pneumonia

- Multiple secondary infections

- Raised red plaques -vasculitis of skin, internal organs, possibly linked to Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome

Dx - classic changes, confirmation by PCR and histology

Control Measures for PCAD

- Good hygiene and management practices in farrowing room and nursery

- Try to control co-infections through vaccination of sows, early vaccination in nursery

- Avoid mixing, overstocking, poor air quality

- All-in/all-out. Prefer solid pen partitions.

- Remove poor doers promptly

- Needles for single injection only

- Consider circovirus vaccines

Antibiotic Use

Addition of antibiotics to feed, water is common practice.

Get rid of old feed first.

“Pulse medication” is a common way to deal with endemic diseases.


Good activity in swine

Formulas for injectable, feed and water

Not good for Mycoplasma

Procaine pen G

IM for Erysipelas, Clostridium, Streps


Off label for E.coli, Salmonella


Haemophilus, Pasturella + Erysipelas, Streps

Resistance is now common for some other targeted species (Salmonella, Staph, Mycoplasma).

ChlorTC,oxyTC and TC are available as feed additives, water soluble powders

Tylosin (Macrolide)


Brachyspira - injectable, feed/water forms

Very short withdrawal period

Tilmicosin (Macrolide)

A. pleuropneumonia, P. multocida, Mycoplasma


Avoid parenteral use


Not well absorbed from gut

E.coli, Salmonella, Pasturella

Long withdrawal period

Ceftiofur (Excede)

Good injectable for Gram negatives + strep suis

Exceded is single injection, 14d withdrawal

Enrofloxacin (Baytril)

Available in multiple strengths for injection

Oral prep for piglets

Broad spectrum including Mycoplasma

Actinobacillus, Pasteurella, Haemophilus, Strep Suis

Tiamulin (diterpine)

Mycoplasma, Lepto


Don't combine with monensin!


Procaine pen G



Procaine pen G


Procaine pen G

Ceftiofur (Strep suis)

Enrofloxacin (Strep suis)

E. coli

Amoxicillin/Ampicillin (off label)



Amoxicillin/Ampicillin (off label)


Tetracycline - resistance








Tilmicosin (macrolide)


Macrolides: Tylosin, TIlmicosin







Carbadox - feed additive for Brachyspira



What are overconditioned sows prone to?


Seasonal Infertility

- Late summer

- Suspected to be combination of heat stress, photoperiod effects

- Poor cycling, decreased feed intake, small litters, increased abortions

- Change management to promote cooling and feed intake + breed more gilts/sows to make up for loses

PRSS - infectious infertility


Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome

- Late term. Abortion storms

- Various stages of decomposition/health

- Sows often sick

- Sample fetal thoracic fluids, thymus from at least half the litter for PCR (not all will get infected in utero)

- Once exposed, low level abortions in gilts/new stock

- Some live piglets will be spreaders (infection does not equal death)



Mummies classic finding and are best diagnostic sample.

Ubiquitous in population so immunity widespread by second gestation



Abortion storms

Look for involvement of other ages

Multifocal necrosis in various tissues

Reportable disease

Circovirus (PCV-2)

Circovirus (PCV-2)

Fetal myocarditis

Classical Swine Fever/Hog Cholera

Highly virulent strains cause ill sow

Other strains may only cause mummified, weak, or stillborn piglets

Bloody diarrhea



Abortions occur at 1-4 weeks post infection

Abortion storms

Usually autolysed, late term




Any agent that causes fever can lead to abortion (i.e. influenza)

Mastitis, metritis, agalactia
(MMA or dysgalactia syndrome)

Mastitis, metritis, agalactia

(MMA or dysgalactia syndrome)

- Poorly defined syndrome - several causes can induce decreased milk production (eg. Endotoxemia, mycotoxins, etc.)

- Often febrile with swollen mammary glands, anorexia reluctance to rise or nurse.

- Usually within 3 days of farrowing.

- Dx - culture for mastitis.

- Treat with nursing care, antibiotics, banamine, increased exercise

Non-infectious causes of decreased reproductive performance

Poor nutrition



Over-conditioned sows

Hot farrowing rooms

Carbon monoxide toxicity



Reducing pre-weaning mortality

- Decrease oxytocin use at farrowing

- Adequate colostrum / boost sows 6 weeks before delivery

- Prevent chilling

- Assist slow-farrowing sows

- Assure adequate teat availability

- Use clean implements, good hygiene for baby pig processing. One set per litter

Urinary Tract Diseases

Urinary Tract Diseases


Cystitis pyelonephritis (Actinobaculum suis)

Sepsis (turkey egg kidney)

PDNS (shown)

Urate crystals in medulla of dehydrated piglets


Aminoglycoside toxicity

Cardiovascular/Systemic Disease

Cardiovascular/Systemic Disease

Pericardium distended with fluid

Yellow, strands of fibrin

Heart underneath has foci of hemorrhage and fibrins strands

Often causes unanticipated death in young pigs

Think Strep suis/glasser's/mulberry heart (selenium deficiency)


Examine feed content/liver analysis for selenium

Penicillin + Selenium injections prophylactically

Fibrinous polyserositis

Fibrinous polyserositis

Strep suis/Glasser's - suppurative meningitis, fibrin on surface of heart, pleura, abdominal cavity, joints = fibrinous polyserositis

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae

Usually 3 - 6 month old pigs, high morbidity/lowmortality. Stiff, lame pigs with excessive serous joint fluid.

Treat withantibiotics (Tylosin, Nufluor, Lincomycin, Tiamulin).

No meningitis as with glasser's/strep suis

Mycoplasma hyorhinus

Mycoplasma hyorhinus

Usually 2 - 12 wks.

Generally part of a polyserositis reaction (not just joints).

Serofibrinous exudate.

Low morbidity/mortality

Treat with antibiotics (Tylosin, Nufluor, Lincomycin, Tiamulin)

No meningitis as with glasser's/strep suis

Glasser's disease =
fibrinous polyserositis, infectious polyarthritis

Glasser's disease

Haemophilus parasuis

=fibrinous polyserositis, infectious polyarthritis

Component of fibrinous polyserositis.

Usually2wk - 4m.

Many serovars

Changing epidemiology

Carried in nasal cavity

Cx: pyrexia, dyspnea, lameness, tremors etc. to chronic lameness, cough, weight loss in many survivors

Can be devastating in high health herds

Dx tricky

Vaccines must include appropriate serotype

High dose parenteral antibiotics (Tetracycline, Enrofloxacin)

Resistance common

Streptococcal arthritis (Strep. suis)

Streptococcal arthritis (Strep. suis)

Causes a septicema/polyserositis that caninclude joints of weaners and growers.

Dx. by culture.

Treat with antibiotics (Penicillin, Tetracycline, Ceftiofur, Enrofloxacin)

Can cause epizootics.

Acute vs. chronic Erysipelas

Acute vs. chronic Erysipelas

Acute: sick and febrile, unwilling to eat, reluctant to move around, septic with neutrophilia

Chronic: eroded/ulcerated joints - severely lame, decreased ROG, not shedding; endocarditis

Contaminates environment and persists




multifocal necrosis, multiple systems



Porcine Stress Syndrome 

(malignant hyperthermia)

Porcine Stress Syndrome

(malignant hyperthermia)

Pigs usually found dead although tremors, rigidity, pyrexia may be seen.

Necropsy findings include rapid rigor; pale, soft, exudative pork, and pulmonary edema.

Can test for this genetic defect in Ca transport.



Common in gilts during 1st lactation

Lameness, fractures, reluctant to move

Dx at necropsy.

Provide supplemental mineral.

Splayleg (spraddleleg)

Splayleg (spraddleleg)

Poor adductor function due to myofibrillar hypoplasia/degeneration

Multiple factors/possible etiologies.

With nursing care many piglets recover by 2 weeks of age.

Splay leg hobbles - stay on for a few days until muscles develop, then remove



Affects growing cartilage, although adults may have chronic, residual lesions


Shoulder and stifle joints are common sites but any joint or physis is a potential target.

Dx at necropsy.

Control by selective culling program but is a multifactorial disease.

Various causes of arthritis


Strep suis (streptococcal arthritis)

Mycoplasma Hyorhinus - <3mos

Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae - 3-6months


Often concurrent damage with other body systems (e.g. salmonellosis, PCAS, pseudorabies, leptospirosis, etc.)

Hepatosis dietetica (deficiency of vitamin E)

"Milk spot liver" is a very common incidental finding

Liver lobe torsion is a cause of mortality in sows

Hepatosis dietetica

Hepatosis dietetica

Sudden death at 2 - 16 wk due to widespread hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage.

Vit E/Se deficiency.

Milk spot liver

Milk spot liver

Migrating larvae (esp. ascaris suum) in the liver cause an inflammatory reaction, intralobular tissue destruction and hemorrhage.

This is followed by an intense infiltration of eosiniphils and collagen production.



Mulberry heart disease

Mulberry heart disease

Sudden death in thrifty pigs at 1-16wks.

Myocardial hemorrhage with hydropericardium, pulmonary edema.

Vit E/Se deficiency.

Iron deficiency

Rapid growth, poor reserves demand neonates be supplemented or hypochromic anemia develops.


Common in swine.

Occur at mesenteric root, stomach, spleen, liver lobe and occasionally at base of large bowel.

Heat stroke

Common cause of death in sows.

Congested, edematous lungs




Inguinal hernias are more frequent in males and are likely inherited in a polygenic fashion


Melanoma, lymphoma, embryonal nephroma

Routine surgeries

Clip teeth +/- dock tail at less than 1 week

Castration at less than 2 weeks; often must deal with inguinal hernia at this time but can chose to delay

Cryptorchid - paramedian incision, best to wait until after weaned

C-section - above and parallel to glands, enter horn as close to bifurcation as possible

Rectal prolapse -purse string

Biosecurity principles

Define and monitor the herd health status. RECORDS. Closed herd, isolated operation is best

Control animals, biologics entering farm

Control people, vehicles entering farm

Control fomites, feed, water entering farm

Prevent entry of wildlife, vermin

Control flies

Control traffic flow within a premises to minimize spread should an outbreak occur