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21 Cards in this Set

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Factors controlling plasticity of embryonic stem cells:

Transcription factors


DNA methylation


Chromatin regulators


miRNA

Somatic-cell Nuclear Transport

fusion of a somatic cell nucleus with an enucleated, unfertilized egg

Intestinal Crypts

pits located deep in the intestinal wall that serve as a stem cell niche

Cell Polarity

ability of cells to organize their internal structure, resulting in changes in cell shape or regions of membrane

Two ways to induce asymmetrical division in stem cells

Response to an external cue


Interaction in a stem-cell niche

Apoptosis

programmed cell death that ends in the engulfment of the apoptotic cell by a phagocyte

Mutation in the _______ gene blocks programmed cell death in C. elegans.

ced-3

What are examples of apoptotic stimuli?

killer signal


DNA damage


Irradiation


Absence of trophic factor

IAP

inhibitor of apoptotic proteins; binds and inhibits caspase

Planar-Cell Polarity

also known as front-to-back polarity, where cells are organized in a plane of a cell sheet

Necrosis

unprogrammed cell death that results in the swelling and bursting of cells ultimately resulting in inflammation

Survival of neurons is mediated by...

...neurotrophins made in the target tissue

What promotes oligomeric channel formation?

DNA damage


Disruption of integrin

Tumor Necrosis Factor

released by macrophage or Fas ligand produced by activated immune cells bind to "death" receptors Fas

What are embryonic stem cells' potency?

Totipotent

What are adult stem cells in the intestine's potency?

Multipotent

What are adult stem cells in the blood's potency?

Multipotent

What are iPS cells' potency?

Pluripotent

Where is the niche of adult stem cells in the intestine?

Intestinal crypts

Where is the niche of adult stem cells in the blood?

Bone marrow

What are the 4 transcription factors that can reprogram cells into iPS cells?

KLF


SOX2


OCT44


c-MYC