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85 Cards in this Set

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Nasolacrimal Duct
drains tears into nasal cavity
Lacrimal Gland
produces tears
Palpebral Conjunctiva
membrane that covers the inner surface of eyelid
Lacrimal Canals
tears from the surface of the eyes drain here
Bulbar Conjunctiva
membrane that covers the anterior surface of the sclera
Lacrimal Sac
drains tears into the nasolacrimal duct
Ciliary Process
produces aqueous humor.
Sclera
white tough outer layer of the eyeball
Ora Serrrata
anterior part of the retina
Suspensatory Ligaments
attaches lens to the ciliary body
Why can the retina pull away from the back of the eyeball?
its only attached by the optic disc and fluid can get between the choroid and the retina pushing the retina away from the choroid.
Name the two layers of the retina.
pigmented epithelium and neural layer
What is the most anterior part of the eyeball?
the cornea
Which part of the eye has the highest density of cones in te retina?
central fovea
Ganglion cell layer axons form the ............
optic nerve
This does not contain photoreceptors and is also called the blind spot........
optic disc
What are the cones?
the photoreceptors which allow us to see color.
The center of the neural portion of th retina is called?
Central Fovea
These photoreceptors are used in night vision.
Rods
Rods and cones synapse on these cells.
Bipolar Cell Layer
TRH
thyrotrophin

promotes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin releasing factor (PRL) secretion
CRH
corticotrophin

promotes adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) secretion
TRH
thyrotrophin

promotes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin releasing factor (PRL) secretion
GnRH
gonadotrophin

promotes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH) secretion
CRH
corticotrophin

promotes adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) secretion
PRF
Prolactin Releasing Factor

promotes prolactin (PRL secretion
GnRH
gonadotrophin

promotes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH) secretion
GHRH
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

promotes growth hormone (GH) secretion
PRF
Prolactin Releasing Factor

promotes prolactin (PRL secretion
PIF
Prolactin Inhibiting Factor

inhibits prolactin (PRL)secretion
GHRH
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

promotes growth hormone (GH) secretion
GHIH
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone

inhibits growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
PIF
Prolactin Inhibiting Factor

inhibits prolactin (PRL)secretion
OT
Oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions
*stored in posterior pituitary
GHIH
Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone

inhibits growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone

returns water from kidney tubules to blood
*stored in posterior pituitary
HGH
Human Growth Hormone

stimulates liver to produce insulin-like growth factors (IGF) that encourage fat, bone and cartilage growth
OT
Oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions
*stored in posterior pituitary
ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone

returns water from kidney tubules to blood
*stored in posterior pituitary
HGH
Human Growth Hormone

stimulates liver to produce insulin-like growth factors (IGF) that encourage fat, bone and cartilage growth
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

stimulates thyroid to release thyroid hormone
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone

stimulates production of eggs or sperm
LH
Luteinizing Hormone

stimulates ovulation maintains pregnancy
PRL
Prolactin

after child-birth, stimulates breasts to produce milk
ACTH
Adrenocorticotrophic

regulates response to stress, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
MSH

(anterior pituitary)
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

unknown
T3 & T4

(thyroid)
Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine

increases metabolic rate, stimuates cellular metabolism to maintain normal body temp, work w/ GH and insulin to promote growth & development
CT

(thyroid)
Calcitonin

decreases calcium in blood by decreasing osteoclast activity
PTH

(parathyroid)
Parathyroid Hormone

promotes osteoclasts to reabsorb bone matrix by releasing Ca ++ into bood and slows loss of Ca ++ in urine (raises blood Ca++)
The nervous system exerts control through what?
Nerve Impulses
The endocrine system exerts control with what?
chemical messenger molecules called hormones
How do hormones work?
endocrine glands secrete hormones into the interstitial cells around the gland,
the hormones diffuse into capillaries, blood transports hormones to target organs, target organs do what the hormones tell them to do
Circulating Hormones
hormones that travel to distant target organs via the bloodstream.
Local Hormones
hormones that act locally.
Paracrines
local hormones that act on adjacent cells
Autocrines
local hormones that act on he cells that secrete them
What are the two chemical classes of hormones?
Lipid Soluble and Water Soluble
Lipid Soluable Examples
steroids, thyroid hormones, nitic oxides
Water Soluable Examples
amines, peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, eicosanoids
Most water soluble hormones travel around in what? Are they attached to anything or unattached?
Plasma and free and unattached
Adosterone
target organ is kidneys, increases sodium and decreases potassium reabsorption which helps to adjust BP, Blood volume and promotes excretion of H+ (acids) in urine.
Cortisol, Cortisone, Corticosterone
targets liver, muscle and cels involved in body defenses

anti inflammatory
Androgens
promotes sex drive in females, only source of estrogen after menopause
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
body cells involved in fight or flight response
Glucagon
increases blood gluclose levels
Inuslin
decreases blood gluclose levels
Somatostatin
inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon
Pancreatic Polypeptide
regulates release of pancreatic enzymes
Estrogens/Progesterones
regulate menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, prepare breasts for lactation,maintain 2nd sex characteristics
Testosterone
regulates production of sperm, stimulates development and maintains 2nd sex characteristics
Inhibin
inhibits secretion of FSH
thymosin
produced in the thymus, promotes maturation of Tcells that boost immunity
Lipid Soluble Hormones
bind to transport protein (taxi molecules) to be carried in blood which, makes them temporarily water soluble and prevents them from being filtered by kidneys,.
Mechanisms of Hormone Action for Lipid Soluble Hormones
got through plasma membrane and bind to and activate receptors INSIDE target cells, activated receptors alter genes, new proteins are formed, new proteins affect the cell's activitiy, cell does what the hormone told it to do
Mechanics of Hormone Action for Water Soluble Hormones
activate plasma membrane receptors ON target cell, receptor activation sets off a cascade of events inside the cell, the hormone is the first messenger – turns on…, a second messenger (cyclic AMP) is released in the cell, cyclic AMP activates enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions
Amplification
very small amounts of hormones have big effects on target cells
Response of Hormone Target Cell depends on what?
hormone concentration, number of target cell receptors, influence of other hormones
Permissive Effect
one hormone doesn't interfere with another hormone
Synergistic Effect
one hormone enhances the effect of another hormone.
Antagonistic Effect
one hormone interferes with he effect of another hormone
How are hormones usually released from endocrine glands?
short bursts
Hormone release is controlled by what?
signals from nervous system, chemical changes in blood, other hormones
What regulates hormones?
negative feedback
Hypothalamus
links nervous and endocrine systems, forms the floor and walls of the 3rd ventricle of the brain, regulates primitive functions like water balance and sex drive
What gland carries out many of the functions of the hypothalamus?
the pituitary gland