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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Sociology?
The scientific study of society, groups, organizations, institutions, and of the interrelationships among
individuals participating in these collective social systems.
Why Sociology?
A- To solve social problems
B- For the pure pursuit of knowledge.
Does Sociology study the INDIVIDUAL?
What is the MAIN premise of Sociology?
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
What are Social facts?
Aspects of social life that cannot be explained in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual.
To better understand social life , one must acquire a "____________". This allows us to see social life differently than the perspectives of other sciences.
Sociological Perspective.
True or False.

Sociology is a form of consciousness.
What are the FIVE basic institutions in American life?
1. Politics
2. Economics
3. Family and Marriage
4. Education
5. Religion
Which Sociologist studied the patients in the Asylums?
Erving Goffman
What was the Name of Goffman's study?
Asylums: Essays on the social situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates.(1961)
In Goffman's study on "Asylums", which sociological method did he use?
Goffman got permission from the institution to become a _______?
participant observer.
What does the word facade mean?
a "false front" that someone puts up to hide something.

ex. Looking behind the facade of everyday life.
Dictionary Definition: the front of a building; also : any face of a building given special architectural treatment <a museum's east facade>
2 : a false, superficial, or artificial appearance or effect
Who wrote the perspective called "the sociological imagination of discipline"?
C. Wright Mills (1959)
What is "the sociological imagination of discipline"?
A sociological perspective brought up by Wright Mills which means a vivid awareness of the relationship between private experience and the wider society.
What does the sociological imagination allow us to do?
It allows the individual to see a relationship between the events in one's personal life, and the events in one's society.
What does "Micro-sociology" study?
It involves the detailed study of what people say, do, and think as they interact with each other in their daily lives.
What are the three levels of analysis?
I- Micro-sociology
II- Middle-sociology
III- Macro-sociology
What does middle-sociology focus on?
Its studies only one small community at a time.
What does the third level of sociology focus on?
Macro-sociology focuses upon large-scale and long term social processes. Interested in the relationships between social institution, NOT the individual.
Who is the French sociologist credited with having coined the term "sociology"?
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
What school did Comte propose?
The School of Positivism, understanding the world through science.
Comte explained that human efforts to understand the world can be divided into three historical periods. What where they?
1. The Medieval Period (5th - 16th century)

2. The Renaissance Period (1600-1700's)

3. The beginning of the age of science. (1700- present)
The Renaissance was also known as what?
The Enlightenment period.
What were Auguste Comte's methods for doing social research?
1. systematic observation.
2. experimentation
3. comparative historical analysis
What was the "Enlightenment Period"?
(explain in detail)
The great debate in efforts to understand the world was between the religious teachers vs. the rationalists (scientists).
Who is the English sociologist who wrote the first book on methodology?
Harriet Martineau.
What was the tittle of the book written by Harriet Martineau ?
" How to Observe Manners and Morals" -(1838)
What were the names of the THREE methods used by Martineua.
1. comparative analysis
2. Historical method
3. Ethnographic method
4. Content analysis
What was another name for the "ethnographic method?
Participant observer.
What was the name of the English sociologist who compared the notion of "survival of the fittest" to the survival of societies.
Herbert Spencer
What was the name of Herberts Spencer's theory?
Social Darwinism
What was the name of Charle's Darwin's book?
"The Origin of The Species".
Who was the leading advocate of the Conflict Perspective?
Karl Marx
What was the name of the German sociologist who wanted to abolish Capitalism?
Karl Marx
Marx considered himself to be a _______?
"revolutionary and political activist"
Who was "the founder of communism"
Karl Marx
Who was termed "the father of socialism"?
Karl Marx
What type of conflict did Marx spend most of his life writing about?
class conflict
True or False

Marxism is the same a communism.

Marx would not have supported the soviet union
True or False

There were no original writings of Marx on the library shelves in the former soviet union.
True or False

Organizing working people to replace Capitalism became Marx's preoccupation.
What was the name of the working class during Marx's time?
The Proletariat
The idea of "Freely associated labor" came from whom?
Karl Marx
What were the names of Karl Marx's writings?
The First was called " The Communist Manifesto" (originally named " The Manifesto of the Communist League").
What was the name of Marx's mentor friend and collaborator?
Frederick Engels
What were the four demands discussed in class that were included in the Communist manifesto.
1. Progressive income tax
2. free schooling
3. State ownership of all means of
4. a creation of a national bank
"Das Capital" was based on Marx's 1400 pg writing titled what?
" A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy" (1859)
True or False

Marx believed that the publication of Das Kapital would give the worker's movement a theoretical weapon that would sway public opinion to abolish the existing capitalist system of exploitation of the working class.
True or False

The worker's press ignored Marx's ideas, while the capitalist's press greeted them warmly.

other way around
What are commodities?
...articles of trade , esp. a raw material or product
What is class conflict?
...the struggle between those who own the means of production and those who work for them.
What was the name given to those of higher class?
the Bourgeoisie
Marx's search for the exploitation lead to what he called the _______?
"Superstructure of Society"
What was the superstructure made up off?
1. economics
2. politics
3. law
4. religion
Who stated " religion is the opiate of the masses?
Karl Marx
Who composed the "Interest Group Theory"?
Richard Quinney
The Interest Group Theory was composed around what belief?
"Law is in the best interest of those who create it".
What is Class consciousness?

What is False Consciousness?
... to acknowledge your "plight"

.... not to acknowledge your "plight"
Who created the concept of "Surplus Wealth" when relating to the Bourgeoisie.
Karl Marx
What is the definition of "a class".
.. consist of all those people who share a common relationship to the means of production.
More goods and services than those needed to meet their producers.
Surplus Wealth
Who was the Frenck sociologist who was the leading advocate of the Structural Functionalist Perspective?
Emile Durkheim
What was Durkheim primarily interested in?
social solidarity
What is social solidarity?
How societies are held together.
Who was the first sociology appointed to a faculty position in sociology.
Emile Durkheim
Who viewed society as "a system of interrelated parts that work together to produce a "dynamic equilibrium?
Emile Durkheim
What is it called when the parts of a system do not work together properly?
According to ________, society is a system formed by people interacting with one another within various social structures.
Emile Durkheim
What are social facts?
aspects of social life that cannot be explained by the biological or mental characteristics of the individual.
Durkheim explained social solidarity as what?
the ability to work together towards a common goal.
What are the two types of social solidarity?
1. Mechanical solidarity

2. organic solidarity
What is mechanical solidarity?
a type of solidarity that held people together in preliterate societies:
hunting and gathering, caveman societies.

An underlying alliance that causes us to act without rational thinking
What type of solidarity was described by Durkheim as "internal to the human condition"?
mechanical solidarity
Describe organic solidarity.
.. a type of solidarity found in societies that began with the Industrial Revolution. A solidarity that held people together in the "Production of Labor in Society" (1897)
Emile Durkheim's landmark study was on ______ , by far, his most celebrated work.
"Suicide" (1897)

- It is acquired for reading in most sociology majors at universities world wide.

"suicide is a social FACT"
What is an anomie?
a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent for the individual.

(something that confuses you)
Who was the German sociologist who's main contribution was his studies on bureaucratic structures.
Max Weber

important note: Weber noted that a bureaucracy is an "ideal type".
What does a bureaucracy involve?
... involves a hierarchical authority structure that operates under explicit rules and procedures.
What is an "ideal type"?
... is a concept constructed by sociologist in which a phenomenon portrays the essential properties of it's own phenomenon over and over in the same exact way.
According to Max Weber, ALL _______ ________ have a bureaucratic structure.
formal organizations
What are formal organizations made up of?
"secondary groups", which are large and goal oriented and are deliberately and rationally designed to achieve specific objectives.
What are the 8 characteristics of Bureaucracy?
1. Division of labor on specialization/ competence.

2.Hierarchy of authority and control

3.Oligarchy/ rule by the few. Michael's "Iron Law of Oligarchy"

4.System of explicit rules and procedures

5.Formal written communications

6.Leadership positions are full time

7. technical competence at all levels

8. Relationships are impersonal
When Weber says "Bereaucracies are rational". To Weber, the word rational means what?
What does Parkinson's Law state?
In bureaucracy, work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion.
What is Bureaucratic Ritualism?
when in bureaucracy, rules become more important than the goals
What is the Peter Principle?
In Bureaucracy, some workers are promoted or rise to their levels of incompetence.
What was the name of Weber's book?
"The Protestant and the Spirit of Capitalism" (1950) (PUBLISHED)
In his book, Weber stated that the protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism. What was the name given to this idea?
"the weber thesis"
Where was the first department of sociology established?
the University of Chicago
What was the name of the approach to studying human social behavior given to University of Chicago's ?
Ecological Approach
Inner city ghettos were also referred to as what?
" Ethnic Enclaves"
What was the name of Robert E Park's Theory?
"Concentric Zone Theory of City Growth".
Which zone was referred to as "the ghetto"
The third ( working class)
Which zone was refered to as the "suburbs".
Zone eight (last zone)
What are the characteristics of a "combat zone"?

(high crime zone)
1. prostitution

2. pornography

3. drug trade
Who wrote "The Philadelphia Negro"?
W.E.B. DuBois (1899)
What does NAACP stand for, and who was the founding member.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

( W.E.B. DuBois )
What are theories? (sociological)
... a statement that organizes a set of concepts in a meaningful way by explaining the relationship among them
True or False

WEB DuBois was also a participant observer.
What is a Perspective?
... is a view, a way of seeing things
What is a paradigm?
... a total constellation of beliefs.
True or False

The perspectives one takes have little impact on what one sees.
it highly influences.
What is Structural Functionalism?
a functionalist perspective/ macro level. emphasizes the contributions (functions) that each part of a system contributes to the total functioning of the whole system.
From the Functionalist point of view, systems operate under which characteristics?
: Structural Intergration, which produces:
1. order, which leads to
2.stability... through the process of consensus.
What is social consensus?
What the majority decides is desirable to have and to achieve. (the majority are those in power)
What are the "Functions" of "Functionalism"?
1.Manifest Functions

2. latent functions

3. Dysfunctions
What are manifest functions?
are those functions that are intended and recognized in the development of institutions.(positive)
What are latent functions?
those functions which are unintended and unrecognized n the development of institutions.(positive)
what are dysfunctions?
are those functions that have negative consequences.
What is the second sociological perspective, and what does it compose of?
The "Conflict Perspective"/Macro level- explains that our conflict is normal in our everyday lives. (conflict leads to growth of both the individual and society)
True or false

Conflict leads to growth of both the individual and society.
What are the four characteristics of conflict?
1. competition

2. constraints


4. Power struggles
What is the difference between the "social interactionist prospective" and the Functionalist and Conflict perspectives.
social interactionist study at the micro level, whereas the other two groups study at the whole institutions (macro)
What is the CHIEF method used in interactionist study?