Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/99

Click to flip

99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The two types of scientific variables are

Independent and dependent

The social science that deals with mental processes and behavior is

Psychology

The phrase "survival of the fittest" or the belief that the best aspects of society would survive over time, was coined by

Herbert Spencer

Some groups in society share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population. The unique cultural characteristics of these groups form what

Subculture

What are cultural universals?

They ensure fulfillment of basic needs and are common to all cultures

What is the purpose of the family?

To care for children

What are normal that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them called?

Folkways

___________ are subcultures that challenge the values of a larger society

Countercultures

Ideas common language, skills, and political systems are example of

Nonmaterial culture

What do we call features common to all societies?

Cultural universals

Examples of _______ include beliefs, ideas, and rules.

Nonmaterial culture

What is a group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society?

Counterculture

What are all the shared products of human groups called?

Culture

Many agricultural societies abandon barter to facilitate trade and instead use _______ as the medium of exchange.

Money

______ Is a network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction.

Social structure

Compromise, truth, and arbitration are all forms of _______

Accommodation

Competition emphasizes achieving that goal, while ________ emphasizes defeating an opponent

Conflict

A specialization within a society becomes more complex, a society develops

Organic solidarity

In some pre industrial societies, food surpluses enable a more complex

Division of labor

An _________ status signed according to qualities be on a person's control.

Ascribed

You acquire an ________ status through your own direct efforts.

Achieved

What do social scientists believe that are the principal factors that influence personality development?

Nature and nurture

According to Cooley, when does the process of the development of self End?

Never

______ is the internalized attitudes, expectations, and viewpoints of society.

Generalize others

The interactive process by which we develop an image of ourselves based on how we imagine we appear to others is

Looking Glass self

The sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristics of an individual is known as

Personality

______ is the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior.

Social biology

What is the term for a primary group composed of individuals of roughly equal age and similar social characteristics?

Peer group

_______ is the interactive process through which people learn the basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior patterns of society.

Socialization

Not engaging in sexual behavior is referred to as

Abstinence

What do we call the social factor that triggers copycats suicides?

Social integration

What are formal ceremonies that marks the entrance of young people into adulthood?

Rites of passage

Research has found that needs pregnancy can result in

Reduced chance of graduating high school

________, the meeting of people as a romantic engagement, is most commonly found in societies that allows individuals to choose their own marriage patterns.

Dating

When did dating begin to emerge in the United States?

After world war 2

Sociologists referred to the tendency of individuals to marry people with social characteristics similar to their own as ______

Hommgamy

_______ is defined as the period between a normal onset of puberty and the beginning of adulthood

Adolescence

United States today, eight of the top 10 occupations are directly related to

Computers

According to Levinson, divorces are common for men in the ______ transition.

Age 30

What is the scientific study of the processes and phenomena of aging?

Gerontology

A reward or punishment given by the regulatory agency, a school, a business, or a government is a

Formal sanction

What is the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality?

Internalization

Any deviant act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government is called a

Crime

_______ is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable.

Anomie

The ______ perspective explains deviance through strain theory, which views it as a natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society

Functionalist

The ____ perspective explains deviant in terms of power and inequality.

Conflict

The mode of adoption used by beggars and Hermits is

Retreatism

The occasional violation of norms is known as

Primary deviance

The theory suggesting that people who commit deviant acts have weak ties to the community is ____ theory.

Control

The government uses ______ to redistribute money among various segments of society.

Transfer payments

African Americans and Hispanic Americans have poverty rates that are almost ______ of the United States as a whole.

2x

The _____ occupy the lowest paying job and rarely earn a living wage.

Working poor

Members of the ______ can afford to attend prestigious schools, and their families have often been wealthy for generations.

Upper class

What do we call an individuals assets and income?

Wealth

______ is marriage within one's social category.

Endogamy

_____ is a system in which men are dominant over women.

Patriarchy

_____ comprises the behavior in psychological traits considered appropriate for men and women.

Gender

The ____ is the level of a woman's income relative to that of a man.

Wage gap

The right to vote is known as

Suffrage

What is the government sponsored health insurance for elderly Americans and Americans with Disabilities?

Medicare

The number of workers for each person receiving Social Security benefits is the

Dependency rates

______ is the belief that one sex is superior to another by nature.

Sexism

What is the invisible barrier that prevents women from gaining upper level positions in business?

Glass ceiling

Estimates indicate that by 2015, one in a five Americans will the elderly. Sociologist prefer to this phenomenon as____

Graying of America

About what percentage of marriages in the United States and in divorce?

40 - 45%

______, for living together outside of marriage, is particularly common among the young.

Cohabitation

Woman had about 7 out of 10 ____ families.

Single parent

The ________ is the nuclear family into which a person is born or adopted.

Family of orientation

What do we call the couples caught between the needs of their children and the needs of their parents?

Sandwich Generation

An ________ is when a few large companies control an industry, such as the American automobile, oil, and breakfast cereal industries.

Oligopoly

What is the authoritarian government that exercises complete control over the life of its citizens called?

Totalitarianism

The use of trade barriers to protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition is

Protectionism

The resources needed to produce goods and services are called

Factors of production

Most interest groups employ ________ , who are paid to meet directly with government officials in order to win the support of those officials.

Lobbyists

Another term for a capitalist economy is a _________ system.

Free enterprise economy

A ________ is a business organization that is owned by stockholders.

Corporation

What model that states that the political process is controlled by interest groups that compete with one another?

Pluralist model

In what belief system do clans or families connect to a particular sacred animal or object?

Totemism

What percentage of Public Schools control access to school buildings?

85%

The basic functions of religion recognized by sociologists are emotional support, social cohesion, and _________.

Social control

As with all basic institutions, _____ is a universal phenomenon.

Religion

Sociologists use the term ________ to describe schools transmission of cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged.

Hidden curriculum

What involves the assignment of students to different types of education programs?

Tracking

_________ is the belief in more than one God.

Polytheism

What term means to be considered to be part of the supernatural world?

Sacred

Which sociology perspective considers that the mass media may create social isolation or that it may serve to create new social networks?

Internationalist perspective

The mass media support social stability by keeping track of what is happening in the world, interpreting information, transmitting cultural values, and providing entertainment explains which sociological perspective?

Functionalist perspective

Wealth and social status determined ________ in sporting events in medieval times, meaning that only people of noble birth could compete.

Eligibility

According to the conflict perspective, mass media in the United States reinforces the current unequal power structure by encouraging a culture of ______.

Consumerism

The __________ hypothesis states that as new information enters Society, wealthier and better educated members acquire it at a faster rate than poorer and less educated members.

Knowledge gap

What is the process of setting the boundaries of public debate by deciding which issues receive media coverage?

Agenda setting

_________ is the practice of assigning people to Central or non sensual athletic positions on the basis of race or ethnicity.

Stacking

What do we call the gap between those with access to new technologies and those without?

Digital divide

Of the five identifiable city life styles, which tends to be attracted to small ethnic areas?

Ethnic villagers

The model of city structures that shows typical industrial city growth spreading outward from the center, resulting in a series of circles is called the _______ model.

Sector

The model of city structure that shows a typical industrial city spreading outward from the center, resulting in a serious of circles is called the _________.

Concentric zone level

What is the formula for finding birth rate within a population?

Number of life birth and total population times 1000

The area of study devoted to the study of human populations is known as

Demography

What theory predicts that the population grows through geometric progression?

Malthusian theory