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30 Cards in this Set

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popular sovereignty

the idea that political power belongs to the people

John Brown
-anti-slavery
-Potawatomi Massacre
-wanted to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry

Wilmot Proviso

a document stating that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of [the] territory

sectionalism

favoring the interests of one section or region over the interests of the entire country

Free-Soil Party

antislavery northerners who formed a new party that supported the Wilmot Proviso

Compromise of 1850

California was able to enter the Union as a free state. Also, the rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into two territories (Utah and New Mexico) where the question of whether to allow slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty

secede

to formally withdraw from from the Union

Fugitive Slave Act

made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slave in free areas

Anthony Burns

-fugitive slave from Virginia


-abolitionists used force when trying to free him from jail (killed a deputy marshall)

Uncle Tom's Cabin

antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe


several people became abolitionists because of novel (2 million copies sold)

Franklin Pierce

-promised to honor the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act


-won election of 1852 by a large margin

Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Act

-wanted a railroad from Chicago to the Pacific Ocean


-a few key southerners agreed to help him in his plan: they wanted the new territory west of Missouri was opened to slavery


-introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act


Kansas-Nebraska Act

a plan that would divide the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase into two territories (Kansas and Nebraska) and allow the people in each territory to decide on the question of slavery

Attack on Lawrence/Sack of Lawrence

pro-slavery grand jury in Kansas charged anti-slavery leaders w/ treason; 800 men rode to city of Lawrence to arrest anti-slavery leaders, but they had fled; took their anger out on city: set fires, looted buildings, destroyed anti-slavery presses & prints (only one man killed)

Potawatomi Massacre

John Brown & his men killed five pro-slavery men in Kansas near Potawatomi Creek w/ swords; reaction to the Sack of Lawrence



Kansas collapsed into a civil war: about 200 people were killed

Charles Sumner

Senator; criticized pro-slavery people & personally insulted Andrew Pickens Butler

Preston Brooks

nephew of Butler; beat Sumner unconscious w/ cane; southerners sent him more canes; had to pay $300 fine

Republican Party

political party united against the spread of slavery in the West

James Buchanan

won the election of 1856 against Millard Fillmore

Dred Scott

slave that sued for his freedom because he had lived in a free state

Dred Scott Decision

-no slave is a citizen; therefore, cannot file suit


-stated Congress could not outlaw slavery in the territories

Chief Justice Roger B. Taney

-from a slave-holding family in Maryland (opinion was biased)


-wrote the majority opinion in Dred Scott decision


-declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

Lincoln-Douglas Debate

Lincoln challenged Douglas for U.S. Senate

L-D Debate: Two Sides

Lincoln stressed central issue: spread of slavery in the West; Democrats trying to spread slavery across nation


Douglas criticized Lincoln for saying the nation couldn't remain "half slave and half free."

Freeport Doctrine

the notion that the police would enforce the voters' decision in the Dred Scott case

John Brown's Raid

began when he and his men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in hopes of starting a slave rebellion

Election of 1860

Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas


Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge


Constitutional Union Party: John Bell


Republicans: Abraham Lincoln



Winner: Lincoln

Constitutional Union Party

recognized "no political principles other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the states, and the enforcement of the laws."

The South Secedes

southerners believed their economy and way of life would be destroyed without slave labor; seceded from the Union

Confederate States of America

aka: The Confederacy; Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded to become the Confederacy