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20 Cards in this Set

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Ch. 4-03 Professor Axelrod is interested in the effects of physical attractiveness on how others interpret the appearance and behaviours of attractive versus unattractive people. Professor Axelrod is most likely to be interested in
A) personality theory.
B) attribution theory.
C) lie detection.
D) social encoding.
E) social perception.

Type: MC Page Ref: 89-90
Skill: Applied
E
Ch. 4-06 On your birthday, you arrive home and are overjoyed to find a large bouquet of flowers from your best friend. Your eyes grow wide and a broad smile crosses your face. You laugh in delight. This example best illustrates _______ as a primary use of nonverbal behaviour.
A) expressing emotions
B) universality
C) communicating one's personality traits
D) facilitating verbal communication
E) conveying attitudes

Type: MC Page Ref: 92-93
Skill: Applied
A
Ch. 4-17 Paul Ekman and Walter Friesen (1971) collected convincing evidence that facial expressions are universal. In their research, they studied
A) a preliterate tribe in an isolated part of New Guinea.
B) facial expressions on five different continents.
C) infants before they learned to talk.
D) blind people who smile, even though they have never seen a smile.
E) deaf culture.

Type: MC Page Ref: 93-94
Skill: Factual
A
Ch. 4-19 Recall that Paul Ekman and Walter Friesen (1971) have demonstrated that Fore tribespeople from a preliterate culture in New Guinea were able to decode facial expressions of Westerners and encode emotion easily interpretable by Westerners. Their findings suggest that Darwin was
A) right-facial expressions are species-specific.
B) right-facial expressions are gender specific.
C) wrong-facial expressions are culture-specific.
D) right-facial expressions are culture-specific.
E) wrong-facial expressions are universal among humans.

Type: MC Page Ref: 92-94
Skill: Conceptual
A
Ch. 4-34 _______ is to universal as _______ is to culture-specific.
A) Gaze.....personal space
B) Personal space.....gaze
C) Facial expressions.....emblems
D) Emblems.....gaze
E) Gaze.....emblems

Type: MC Page Ref: 96-98
Skill: Conceptual
C
Ch. 4-40 "Computer nerds" are widely held to be socially awkward, introverted, unpopular, and obsessed with anything related to technology. This description represents a(n)
A) subjective inference.
B) constructive reality.
C) implicit personality theory.
D) idiosyncratic schema.
E) personality heuristic.

Type: MC Page Ref: 100
Skill: Applied
C
Ch. 4-42 Although Westerners have an expression for a "bohemian" or "artistic type," Chinese do not. This suggests that
A) contents of implicit personality theories are culture-specific.
B) Chinese are more likely to fall prey to the fundamental attribution error.
C) Chinese have no concepts for "creative," "temperamental," or "unconventional."
D) the Cultural Revolution discouraged pursuit of the arts in China.
E) Westerners are more likely than those in the East to "fill in the blanks" when forming impressions of others.

Type: MC Page Ref: 102
Skill: Conceptual
A
Ch. 4-48 "Ellen is always crabby and tense, and that's why she's acting so impatient today," Grace remarked. Grace has just used a(n) _______ attribution to explain the cause of Ellen's impatience.
A) situational
B) external
C) inferential
D) internal
E) referential

Type: MC Page Ref: 104
Skill: Applied
D
. 4-59 Anna usually doesn't like movies with violent scenes. Still, she saw Pulp Fictiona violent moviefive times, and loved it. Everyone elseincluding criticsreally liked Pulp Fiction, too. In this example, distinctiveness is _______ and consensus is _______.
A) low.....high
B) low.....low
C) high.....high
D) high.....low
E) low only ....high or low

Type: MC Page Ref: 105-106
Skill: Applied
C
Ch. 4-60 Anna usually doesn't like movies with violent scenes. Still, she saw Pulp Fictiona violent moviefive times, and loved it. Everyone else really liked Pulp Fiction, too. After reading Chapter 4, how would you explain why Anna saw Pulp Fiction so many times?
A) She's in love with Samuel L. Jackson.
B) Pulp Fiction must be a good movie.
C) Although Anna doesn't like the violence, she appreciates good dialogue.
D) Anna actually enjoys movies with violent scenes.
E) Violence is making a comeback in Hollywood.

Type: MC Page Ref: 105-106
Skill: Applied
B
Ch. 4-64 Simon laughed long and hard when he saw his mother slip and fall. Neither his sister nor his father laughed when they saw her fall. Simon has seen both his mother and other people fall before, but didn't laugh then. According to Kelley's covariation model, observers privy to this information are likely to assume that
A) the weather makes people behave strangely.
B) there must have been something peculiar about this particular incident that made Simon laugh.
C) Simon doesn't like his mother very much.
D) Simon's mother looked ridiculous when she fell.
E) Simon is under stress and not himself.

Type: MC Page Ref: 105-106
Skill: Applied
B
Ch. 4-70 After watching a television report about people who pay too much for their cars when they are subjected to "high pressure" sales tactics, you conclude that those people are particularly weak and gullible. According to the text, your conclusion is an example of all of the following except:
A) the correspondence bias.
B) a dispositional attribution.
C) an internal attribution.
D) a situational attribution.
E) the fundamental attribution error.

Type: MC Page Ref: 107-115
Skill: Applied
D
Ch. 4-72 People who commit the fundamental attribution error are most like
A) personality psychologists.
B) social psychologists.
C) clinical psychologists.
D) experimental psychologists.
E) sociologists.

Type: MC Page Ref: 107-108
Skill: Conceptual
A
Ch. 4-85 Ra l and Ramona are bowling. Ramona watches as she waits for her turn, and when Ra l is up, he rolls the ball right into the gutter. Whereas Ra l is likely to think _______ Ramona is likely to think _______.
A) "They need to wax these alleys."....."He always was a little clumsy."
B) "I've got to practice more"....."He must have forgotten his glasses."
C) "I'm a poor bowler"...."He is just having a bad day. Something must be on his mind."
D) "I've never been any good at bowling."....."He must have slipped."
E) "These shoes are just too tight."....."He couldn't see the line."

Type: MC Page Ref: 112-114
Skill: Applied
A
Ch. 4-92 The actor/observer pattern of attributions does not manifest itself when actors explain their own successes. Why?
A) Actors are often motivated to maintain or restore their self-esteem.
B) In the interest of getting along, observers are likely to give actors the benefit of the doubt.
C) Actors are often socially motivated to appear humble and self-deprecating.
D) Actors are most concerned about the feelings of others.
E) Actors are concerned about the stability of attributions, but observers are not.

Type: MC Page Ref: 114-115
Skill: Conceptual
A
Ch. 4-96 Which of the following was presented in the text as a possible reason why athletes attribute wins to their own behaviour and losses to external factors?
A) Self-serving attributions are partly due to the values that we are taught in our Western culture.
B) Engaging in self-serving attributions is motivated by a need to protect one's self-esteem.
C) The operation of judgmental heuristics leads to a tendency to engage in self-serving attributions.
D) The behaviours in a winning effort are more perceptually salient than those in a losing effort.
E) Athletes are particularly likely to commit the fundamental attribution error.

Type: MC Page Ref: 114-115
Skill: Conceptual
B
Ch. 4-98 Because the knowledge that we are mortal and that bad things can happen to us is very difficult to accept, we often make _______ attributions.
A) fundamental
B) defensive
C) personal
D) internal
E) egoistic

Type: MC Page Ref: 116
Skill: Conceptual
B
Ch. 4-101 Belief in a just world and unrealistic optimism are best characterized as forms of
A) actor/observer difference.
B) perceptual bias.
C) perceptual bias.
D) fundamental attribution error.
E) defensive attribution.

Type: MC Page Ref: 116-119
Skill: Conceptual
E
Ch. 4-114 Recall that a number of researchers have found that participants from Asian cultures are less likely than participants from Western cultures to commit the fundamental attribution error. These findings suggest that
A) values can influence cognitive processes.
B) experimental stimuli were poorly translated.
C) Western cultures are more advanced than Easter cultures.
D) Eastern cultures are more advanced than Western cultures.
E) it is relatively easy to teach people to reason more logically.
A
Ch. 4-117 Ryan (an American student) and Kim (an exchange student from Korea) are waiting in the medical clinic reception area. A father rushes in carrying his 3-year-old child in his arms and demands an appointment for his child. As the receptionist tries to explain that the clinic is closing soon and there are no more appointments available for this evening, the father becomes increasingly agitated. According to research by Choi and Nisbett (1998) on cross-cultural differences in the actor/observer effect, what attributions about the father's behaviour would be predicted for Ryan and Kim?
A) Ryan and Kim will be equally likely to describe the father as aggressive.
B) Kim will be more likely to describe the father as aggressive while Ryan will describe his behaviour as stressed.
C) Ryan will be more likely to describe the father as aggressive while Kim will describe his behaviour as stressed.
D) Ryan and Kim will be equally likely to describe the father as stressed.
E) Ryan and Kim wi
C