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37 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of soil?
sand, clay, silk - combined with other organic materials
Where do soil scientists believe the components of soil come from?
sand from weathered quartz
silk from deposited sediment
clay from weathered feldspar
What is another name for a soil scientist?
pedologist
What are the layers of soil called?
horizons
Which layer of soil has the most humus?
A-horizon or topsoil
State three ways the landmasses of the earth degenerate
weathering
mass wasting
erosion
What are the two types of weathering?
chemical and mechanical
How are chemical and mechanical weathering different?
Chemical weathering involves changing the chemical make-up and mechanical weathering involves the breaking down of large rocks.
How much does water expand when it freezes?
9%
What factors can influence the rate of chemical weathering?
the kind of mineral the rock is made of, the climate, the temperature, moisture and the amount of exposure
How does the expansion of water when it freezes affect the weathering of rock and soils?
it breaks the rocks into smaller pieces
What is the accumulation of rock debris at the base of a cliff called?
talus
What type of weathering produces talus (the accumulation of rock debris at the base of a cliff)?
mechanical weathering
True/False - weathering reduces the orderliness of the materials in the original rock
true
What are some evidences that soils do not require thousands of years to form?
scientists can prove that this can form in just a few years
True/False - The newly created soil in the Garden of Eden must have contained A-, B-, and C- horizons over the bedrock.
False - the first soils were not produced by weathering
What is the downhill movement of large masses of soil or rock under the influence of gravity called?
mass wasting
What factors can lead to the earth movement known as mass wasting (downhill movement of large masses of soil or rock under the influence of gravity)?
the slope of the land, the vegetation of the area, and the presence of water
What kind of evidence indicates that creep is occurring?
slanted fence posts, leaning stone walls, tilted telephone poles, and ripples in sod
What are two ways to prevent damage to a building due to creep?
anchor a building in bedrock so that the creeping soil "flows" around the building; build a retaining wall
What is rapid mass wasting that involves detatched pieces of bedrock called?
rockslide
list three kinds of debris slides
earth flow, mud flow, and avalanche
What is one common cause of debris slides?
earthquakes
True/False - Rock glaciers occur only in areas where the soil remains frozen most of the year.
True
What is the rate of drop of a stream called?
gradient
How does this characteristic (gradient) affect the amount of sediment a stream can carry?
faster, more turbulent,
What is the ultimate base level for most streams?
sea level
Can a stream flow below this ultimate base level (sea level)?
yes, because they are flowing
What are smaller streams that flow into larger streams called?
tributaries
What are streams that result from the subdivision of a larger stream called?
??
What is the main difference in energy contained in high-gradient and low-gradient streams?
it has more energy because it is flowing faster
What is a looping bend in the path of a low-gradient stream called?
meander
What often occurs to the bends (meander) with time?
often cuts off meanders forming an oxbow
What form of erosion occurs when wate dissolves minerals and removes them from the soil?
solution erosion
Compare alluvial fans with deltas
alluvial fans are created when a high gradient flows on a level plain; deltas are built from topsoil eroded farther upstream
True/False - From the North American continental divide in the U.S., streams flow west into the Pacific Ocean or Gulf of California, or east to the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean
True
True/False - Evolutionists believe the Grand Canyon was formed slowly by erosion over millions of years, but Creationists believe it formed quickly as the waters flowed off the continent after Noah's flood or as a result of a great inland lake emptying some years after the flood.
True