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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What early crop did both the Olmec and the Maya grow?


What early crop did both Mesoamericans and people in the North American Southwest grow?


What was one major plant food for Native Americans in the California region?


Around what year did the Olmec civilization end?

400 B.C.

What made the slave trade important to the west African economy?

Kings traded slaves for valuable goods.

In what way did the Crusades change Europe?

Increases trade with Asia.

What term describes the new emphasis on people rather than religion that emerged during the Renaissance?


How did joint-stock companies benefit investors?

Investors took fewer risks.

What term describes the voyage taken by slaves across the Atlantic Ocean?

Middle Passage

What was the purpose of the pueblo settlements set up by the Spanish in New Spain?

Pueblos are trading posts/centers for government.

For which country did King Phillip II lead the Catholic Reformation?


How did Catholicism affect Spain's rule in the Americas?

Priests were to convert Native Americans to Christianity.

Why did the Dutch settlers practice religious toleration?

More people would join their colony.

Explain the Enlightenment idea of a social contract.

It spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society.

How might the idea of a social contract lead colonies to believe they had the right to break away from Britain?

People thought they had natural rights such as equality and liberty.

Before the Battle of Trenton, why did many Patriot leaders favor a defensive war?

Short on supplies.

Why was Marquis de Lafayette interested in the American Revolution?

Inspired by the ideas of the Revolution

What event lead to the Patriots' defeat of the British at Yorktown?

Charles Cornwallis moved his troops.

What were the four agreements in the Treaty of Paris of 1783?

1) Great Britain recognized U.S. independence

2) Set American borders.

3) A treaty between Britain/Spain returned Florida to Spain.

4) British leaders accepted American rights to settle and trade west of the original 13 colonies.

Why was the Second Continental organized?

To establish the first national government of the United States.

Under the Articles of Confederation the United States did not have an army. Why?

It was impossible to force states to provide soldiers.

What weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation were exposed by Shay's Rebellion?

States has more power than the federal government.

Which important figures attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia?

James Madison, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin.

What proposals were made in the New Jersey plan?

Each state would have a voice in a unicameral Legislature.

What was the main reassurance that the authors of the Federalist Papers tried to give the American people?

The federal government would not overpower the states.

Who drafted the list of proposed constitutional amendments that became the Bill of Rights?

James Madison

What two people were the first justices to represent African Americans and women on the Supreme Court?

Thurgood Marshall and Sandra Day O'connor

What does the Eighth Amendment protect against?

Cruel and unusual punishment.

How did New York City represent the spirit of the nation in 1790?

It had recovered after being damaged during the Revolution.

What is a speculator?

People who buy items at low prices in the hope that the value will rise and they can sell the items for a profit.

Contrast Hamilton's and Jefferson's economic differences.

Hamilton : Business people

Jefferson : Farmers

What was the Republicans' main criticism of the Alien and Sedation Acts?

They viewed it as a mistake of the governments power.

What three major issues did Washington warn the nation about in his farewell address?

-No public debt

-Don't become allies with other countries

-To work out its differences, protect its independence

How was a vice president chose in 1796?

Whoever came in second.

What was the main threat faced by Americans in the Northwest Territory?

The native Americans got guns so they could fight the Americans.

Between what two groups was the first political party division in the United States?


Why did John Adams face a challenging task as president?

He had to follow and had huge challenges. People adored Washington.

Why did War Hawks call for war against Britain?

Britain didn't want the U.S. to expand to the west.

What three things did President Jefferson want to learn from Lewis and Clark's expedition?

1) People

2) Plants


Why did the U.S. navy defeat the British in the War of 1812?

Positioning of the ships.

What city did British attack once their ranks were reinforced in April of 1814?

Washington D.C.

Why did the attempts made by the U.S. army to invade Canada fail?

Refused to fight in different countries.

What finally convinced Spanish leaders to settle disputes with the United States over Florida in 1819?

Jackson invaded Florida.


Disagreements between different regions.


Feelings of pride and loyalty to a nation.

Why did Americans decide to model much of their architecture after the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome?

They admired the civilization.

Why did American leaders support Latin America struggles for independence from Spain in the early 1820's?

Their struggle reminded them of their own struggles in America.

In the early 1800's, why did Americans think education was important?

They needed educated and informed citizens.

In the 1830's, what was the disagreement concerning education?