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50 Cards in this Set

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DNA

Instructions for cells to be built and for cells to function / "instructional manual" for life

RNA

Carries the code of the DNA out of the nucleus, and proteins are built by the joining of 3 types of RNA

Enzyme

protein that speeds up chemical reactions

Diffusion

movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

Active

The transport of materials through a cell membrane when energy is required

Transport protein

Special "doorway" in the cell membrane that can be used in Active transport

Endocytosis

The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell (Engulfing)

Exocytosis

The process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a selectively premeable cell membrane

Producer

an organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surrounding

Selectively Permeable

a type of membrane that allows only certain substances to pass in and out of the cell; "selective" or "picky"

Passive

The transport of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

Photosynthesis

1. Sunlight is absorbed in chloroplasts. 2. Glucose is made.

Photosynthesis

Glucose and Oxygen are the products.

Cellular Respiration

Oxygen and Glucose are the raw materials.

Cellular Respiration

1. Glucose is broken down in the mitochondria. 2. Energy is released.

Cell Cycle

Regular sequence of growth and division that a cell undergoes

Interphase

Cell grows to full size and chromosomes duplicate.

Mitosis

The cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei.

Cytokinesis

The cell divides the cytoplasm, pinches in two, and two new daughter cells are formed.

Fermentation

production of energy by a cell without using oxygen, ex: occurs in muscle cells and yeast cells (causing dough to rise)

Chlorophyll

Green pigment in chloroplasts which captures energy from sunlight during photosynthesis

Water

substance that helps cells maintain size/shape, allows chemical reactions to take place in cells, and helps cells maintain temperature(homeostasis)

Nucleic Acids

DNA and RNA are the two types

Cell Cycle

Includes the stages of Interphase, Mitosis, & Cytokinesis

Mitosis

A cell divides into two new cells.

Diffusion

Oxygen moves from a high concentration in the lungs, to a lower concentration in the blood.

Osmosis

Water diffuses from a high concentration in the blood, to a lower concentration in body cells.

Passive

the type of transport in which substances diffuse through pores of a cell membrane

Active

the type of transport in which substances are pumped in/out of cells by transport proteins

Active

the type of transport that includes exocytosis and endocytosis

Photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide & Water are the raw materials.

Cellular Respiration

Carbon dioxide, Water, & ATP are the products.

Homeostasis

A cell's ability to maintain a stable internal environment, despite the external surroundings

Cytoplasm

What organelle is made mainly of water and is constantly moving?

Osmosis

What process do cells rely on in order to have balanced amounts of water (homeostasis)?

Sun

What is the energy source for photosynthesis?

Sun

What powers the process of photosynthesis?

Sugars

Glucose molecules are also known as _____________ .

Osmosis

Through what process can a dying, wilting flower be watered and its cells "come back to life" by swelling?

Raw materials

substances used to manufacture products

Products

substances that are manufactured

Interphase

DNA duplicates in this phase

Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm is pinched and divided, so two new daughter cells can be formed.

Oxygen

Waste gas released by photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide

Waste gas released by cellular respiration

Oxygen

Gas taken in by consumers in cellular respiration

Carbon dioxide

Gas taken in by producers in photosythesis

Chloroplast

Food is made in this organelle through process of photosynthesis

Mitochondria

Energy / ATP is released by this organelle through process of cellular respiration