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284 Cards in this Set

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bones

provide shape, support, protection, and the framework of the body. serve as a storage place for mineral salts, calcium, and phosphorus. play an important role in the formation of blood cells. provide areas for the attachment of skeletal muscles. help make movement possible.

cartilages

form the major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults.

ligaments

connect the articular ends of bones, binding them together and facilitating or limiting motion. connect cartilage and other structures. serve to support or attach fascia or muscles.

flat bones

ribs, scapula, parts of the pelvic girdle, bones of the skull.

long

tibia femur, humerus, radius.

short

carpal, tarsal

irregular

vertebrae, ossicles of the ear.

sesamoid

patella

sutural or wormian

between the flat bones of the skull.

epiphysis

the ends of a developing bone.

diaphysis

the shaft of a long bone.

periosteum

the membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces.

compact bone

the dense, hard layer of bone tissue.

medullary canal

a narrow space or cavity throughout the length of the diaphysis.

endosteum

a tough, connective tissue membrane lining the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow.

cancellous or spongy bone

the reticular tissue that makes up most of the volume of bone.

synarthrosis

does not permit movement. the bones are in close contact with each other and there is no joint cavity an example is the cranial sutures

amphiarthrosis

permits very slight movement. an example of this type of joint is the vertebrae.

diarthrosis

allows free movement in a variety of directions. examples of this type of joint are the knee, hip, elbow, wrist, and foot.

condyle

a rounded process that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation

crest

a ridge on a bone

fissure

a slit-like opening between two bones.

foramen

an opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves.

fossa

a shallow depression in or on a bone

head

the rounded end of a bone

meatus

a tube-like passage or canal.

process

an enlargement or protrusion of a bone.

sinus

an air cavity within vertain bones

spine

a pointed, sharp, slender process.

sulcus

a groove, furrow, depression, or fissure.

trochanter

a very large process of the femur.

tubercle

a small, rounded process.

tuberosity

a large, rounded process.

abduction

the process of moving a body part away from the middle.

adduction

the process of moving a body part toward the middle.


circumduction

the process of moving a body part in a circular motion.

dorsiflexion

the process of bending a body part backward.

eversion

the process of turning outward.

extension

the process of straightening a flexed limb.

flexion

the process of bending a limb

inversion

the process of turning inward

pronation

the process of lying prone or face downward, also the process of turning the hand so the palm faces downward.

retraction

the process of moving a body part backward

protraction

the process of moving a body part forward.

rotation

the process of moving a body part around a central axis.

supination

the process of lying supine or face upward; also the process of turning the palm or foot upward.

vertebral column

is composed of a series of separate bones (vertebrae) connected in such a way as to form four spinal curves.

curves of the spine

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral.

cervical curve

contains the first 7 vertebrae

thoracic curve

consists of the next 12 vertebrae

lumbar curve

consists of the next 5 vertebrae

sacral curve

consists of sacrum and coccyx.

male pelvis

shaped like a funnel, forming a narrower outlet than the female. it is heavier and stronger than the female pelvis; therefore, it is more suited for lifting and running.

female pelvis

is shaped like a basin. it may be oval to round and it is wider than the male pelvis. the female pelvis is constructed to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy and to facilitate its downward passage through the pelvic cavity in childbirth. in general the female pelvis is broader and lighter than the male pelvis.

osteoporosis

loss of bone mass.

acetabular

the cup-shaped socket of the hipbone into which the thighbone fits.

achondroplasia

a defect in the formation of cartilage at the epiphyses of long bones.

acroarthritis

inflammation of the joints of the hands or feet.

acromion

the projection of the spine of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder and articulates with the clavicle

ankylosis

a condition of stiffening of a joint.

arthralgia

pain in a joint

arthritis

inflammation of a joint

arthrocentesis

surgical puncture of a joint for removal of fluid.

arthroplasty

surgical repair of a joint.

arthroscope

an instrument used to examine the interior of a joint.

bone marrow transplant

the surgical process of transferring bone marrow from a donor to a patient.

bursa

a small space between muscles, tendons, and bones that is lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid, sunovia

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

calcaneal

pertaining to the heel bone.

calcium

a mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development, blood coagulation, and many other functions.

carpal

pertaining to the wristbone.

carpal tunnel syndrome

a condition caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament; symptoms: soreness, tenderness, weakness, pain, tingling and numbness at the wrist.

cartilage

a specialized type of fibrous connective tissue present in adults, which forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton.

cast

a type of material, made of plaster of paris, sodium silicate, starch or dextrin used to immobilize a fractured bone, a dislocation, or a sprain.

chondral

pertaining to cartilage.

chondrocostal

pertaining to the rib cartilage.

clavicular

pertaining to the clavicle

coccygeal

pertaining to the coccyx

coccygodynia

pain in the coccyx

collagen

a fibrous insoluble protein found in the connective tissue, skin, ligaments, and cartilage.

connective

that which connects or binds together.

costal

pertaining to the rib

costosternal

pertaining to a rib and the sternum

craniectomy

surgical excision of a portion of the skull

craniotomy

incision into the skull.

dactylic

pertaining to the finger or toe.

dactylogram

a fingerprint

dislocation

the displacement of a bone from a joint

femoral

pertaining to the femur; the thighbone.

fibular

pertaining to the fibula

fixation

the process of holding or fastening in a fixed position; making rigid, immobilizing.

flatfoot

an abnormal flatness of the sole and arch of the foot; also known as pes planus.

genu valgum

knock-knee

genu varum

bowleg

gout

a hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis; usually begins in the knee or foot but can affect any joint.

hallux

the big or great toe

hammertoe

an acquired flexion deformity of the interphalangeal joint.

humeral

pertaining to the humerus.

hydrarthrosis.

condition of fluid in a joint

iliac

pertaining to the ilium.

iliosacral

pertaining to the ilium and the sacrum

intercostal

pertaining to between the ribs.

ischial

pertaining to the ischium, hip.

ischialgia

pain in the ischium, hip.

kyphosis

humpback

laminectomy

surgical excision of a vertebral posterior arch.

ligament

a band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones, cartilages, and other structures; also serves as a place for the attachment of fascia or muscle.

lordosis

abnormal anterior curvature of the spine

lumbar

pertaining to the loins.

lumbodynia

pain in the loins

mandibular

pertaining to the lower jaw.

maxillary

pertaining to the upper jaw.

meniscus

crescent-shaped interarticular fibrocartilage found in certain joints, especially the lateral and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the knee joint.

metacarpal

pertaining to the bones of the hand

metacapectomy

surgical excision of one or more bones of the hand.

myelitis

inflammation of the bone marrow.

myeloma

a tumor of the bone marrow

myelopoiesis

the formation of bone marrow

olecranal

pertaining to the elbow

osteoarthritis

inflammation of the bone and joint.

osteoblast

a bone-forming cell.

osteocarcinoma

a cancerous tumor of a bone; new growth of epithelial tissue.

osteochondritis

inflammation of the bone and cartilage.

osteogenesis

the formation of bone

osteomalacia

softening of the bones

osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone marrow.

osteopenia

lack of bone tissue.

osteoporosis

a condition that results in reduction of bone mass.

osteosarcoma

a malignant tumor of the bone; cancer arising from connective tissue.

osteotome

an instrument used for cutting bone.

patellar

pertaining to the patella

pedal

pertaining to the foot.

periosteoedema

swelling around a bone.

phalngeal

pertaining to the bones of the fingers and toes

phosphorus

a mineral that is essential in bone formation, muscle contraction, and many other functions.

polyarthritis

inflammation of more than one joint.

rachigraph

an instrument used to measure the curvature of the spine.

radial

pertaining to the radius

radiograph

an x-ray photograph of a body part

reduction

the manipulative or surgical procedure used to correct a fracture or hernia

rheumatoid arthritis

a chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities.

rickets

a deficiency condition in children primarily caused by a lack of vitamin D; may also result from inadequate intake or excessive loss of calcium.

scapular

pertaining to the shoulder blade

scoliosis

a condition of lateral curvature of the spine.

spinal

pertaining to the spine.

splint

an appliance used for fixation, support, and rest of an injured body part.

spondylitis

inflammation of one or more vertebrae

sprain

twisting of a joint that causes pain and disability.

spur

a sharp or pointed projection, as on a bone.

sternal

pertaining to the sternum.

sternotomy

surgical incision of the sternum

subclavicular

pertaining to beneath the clavicle

subcostal

pertaining to beneath the ribs

submaxilla

the lower jaw or mandible

symphysis

a growing together

tennis elbow

a chronic condition characterized by pain caused by excessive pronation and supination activities of the forearm; usually caused by strain, as in plaing tennis.

tenonitis

inflammation of a tendon

tibial

pertaining to the tibia

traction

the process of drawing or pulling on bones or muscles to relieve displacement and facilitate healing.

ulnar

pertaining to the elbow.

ulnocarpal

pertaining to the ulna side of the wrist.

vertebral

pertaining to a vertebra

vertebrosternal

pertaining to a vertebra and the sternum.

xiphoid

resembling a sword.

closed or simple fracture

fractures that do not involve a break in the skin; they are completely internal.

open or compound fracture

fractures are more dangerous because the fracture projects through the skin and there is a possibility of infection or hemorrhage.

comminuted fracture

shatter the affected part into a multitude of bony fragments.

transverse fracture

break the shaft of a bone across its longitudinal axis

greenstick fracture

usually occur in children whose long bones have not fully ossified; only one side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent.

spiral fracture

spread along the length of a bone and are produced by twisting stresses.

Colles' fracture

is often the result of reaching out to cushion a fall; there is a break in the distal portion of the radius

Pott's fracture

occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the lower leg (fibula and tibia).

compression fracture

occur in vertebrae subjected to extreme stresses, as when one falls and lands on his/her bottom.

epiphyseal fracture

usually occur where the matrix is undergoing calcification and chondrocytes (cartilage cells) are dying; this type of fracture is seen in children.

risk factors for osteoporosis

family history of osteoporosis, lack of exercise - especially weight-bearing exercise - which stimulates bone growth, thin - petite build, never been pregnant, early menopause (before 45), prone to fractures and loss of height in the past few years, avoided dairy products as a child, smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, diet high in salt, caffeine, or fat, insufficient intake of vitamin D.

anti-inflammatory agents

relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of inflammation. these agents may be classified as steroidal (corticosteroids) and nonsteroidal.

corticosteroids

steroid substance with potent anti-inflammatory effects.

nonsteroidal (NSAIDS)

agents that are used in the treatment of arthritis and related disorders.

disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

may influence the course of the disease progression; therefore, their introduction in early rheumatoid arthritis is recommended to limit irreversible joint damage.

COX-2 inhibitors

cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme involved in many aspects of normal cellular function and also in the inflammatory response. COX-2 is found in joints and other areas affected by inflammation, such as occurs with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. inhibition of COX-2 reduces the production of compounds associated with inflammation and pain.

antitumor necrosis factor (Anti-TNF) drugs

these drugs have evolved out fo the biotechnology industry and seem to slow, if not halt altogether, the destruction of the joints by disrupting the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a substance involved in the body's immune response

agents used to treat gout

acute attacks of gout are treated with colchicine. once the acute attack of gout has been controlled, drug therapy to control hyperuricemia can be initiated.

agents used to prevent or treat postmenopausal


osteoporosis

include: fosamax and actonel. fosamax reduces the activity of the cells that cause bone loss and increases the amount of bone in most patients. actonel inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and modulates bone metabolism. to receive the clinical benefits of either of these drugs the patient must be informed and follow the prescribed drug regimen.

analgesics

agents that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness. they are classified as narcotic or non-narcotic.

arthrography

a diagnostic examination of a joint (usually the knee) in which air and then a radiopaque contrast medium are injected into the joint space, x-rays are taken, and internal injuries of the meniscus, cartilage, and ligaments may be seen, if present.

arthroscopy

the process of examining internal structures of a joint via an arthroscope; usually done after an arthrography and before joint surgery.

goniometry

the measurement of joint movements and angles via a goniometer.

photon absorptiometry

a bone scan that uses a low beam of radiation to measure bone-mineral density and bone loss in the lumbar vertebrae; useful in monitoring osteoporosis.

thermography

the process of recording heat patterns of the body's surface; can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

x-ray

the examination of bones by use of an electromagnetic wave of high energy produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a target in a vacuum tube; used to identify fractures and pathologic conditions of the bones and joints such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondylitis, and tumors.

alkaline phosphatase blood test

a blood test to determine the level of alkaline phosphatase; increased in osteoblastic bone tumors, rickets, osteomalacia, and during fracture healing.

antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

present in a variety of immunologic diseases; positive result may indicate rheumatoid arthritis.

calcium (Ca) blood test

the calcium level of the blood may be increased in metastatic bone cancer, acute osteoporosis, prolonged immobilization, and during fracture healing; may be decreased in osteomalacia and rickets.

C-Reactive protein blood test

positive result may indicate rheumatoid arthritis, acute inflammatory change, and widespread metastasis.

phosphorus (P) blood test

phosphorus level of the blood may be increased in osteoporosis and fracture healing.

serum rheumatoid factor (RF)

an immunoglobulin present in the serum of 50-95% of adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

uric acid blood test

uric acid is increased in gout, arthritis, multiple myeloma, and rheumatism.

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

AP

anteroposterior

BMD

bone mineral density (test)

CDH

congenital dislocation of hip.

C 1

cervical vertebra, first

C 2

cervical vertebra, second

C 3

cervical vertebra, third

Ca

calcium

DJD

degenerative joint disease

Fx

fracture

JRA

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

jt

joint

KJ

knee jerk

L 1

lumbar vertebra, first

L 2

lumbar vertebra, second

L 3

lumbar vertebra, third

LAC

long arm cast

lig

ligament

LLC

long leg cast

LLCC

long leg cylinder cast

OA

osteoarthritis

ORTHO

orthopedics, orthopaedics

PCL

posterior cruciate ligament

PEMFs

pulsing electromagnetic fields

PWB

partial weight bearing

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

SAC

short arm cast

SLC

short leg cast

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

T 1

thoracic vertebra, first

T 2

thoracic vertebra, second

T 3

thoracic vertebra, third

TMJ

temporomandibular joint

Tx

traction

acetabul (root)

vinegar cup

chondro

cartilage


acr

extremity, point

arthr

joint

ankyl

stiffening, crooked

burs

a pouch

carp

wrist

cartil

gristle

cost

rib

clavicul

little key

coccyg

tailbone

coll/a

glue

connect

to bind together

stern

sternum

femor

femur

locate

to place

dactyl

finger or toe

crani/o

skull

fixat

fastened

humer

humerous

hydr

water

ili/o

illium

inter

between

sacr

sacrum

isch/i

ischium, hip

kyph

a hump

lamin

lamina (thin plate)

lord

bending

lumb

loin

mandibul

lower jawbone

maxill

jawbone

menisc

crescent

myel

marrow

olecran

elbow

carcin

cancer

-malacia

softening

por

a passage

patell

knee cap

ped

foot

phalang/e

closely knit row

phos

light

phor

carrying

rach/i

spine

duct

to lead

rheumat

discharge

scapul

shoulder blade

scoli

curvature

spin

spine

spondyl

vertebra

tenon

tendon

tibi

tibia

uln

elbow

xiph

sword