Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
empirical
relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement
psychology
the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment
Critical thinking
the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote
Functionalism
an early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
psychoanalysis
a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally developed by Sigmund Freud, which emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
basic psychology
the study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application
Applied psychology
the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and the application of psychological findings
biological perspective
a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts
learning perspective
a psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions' it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories
social-cognitive learning theory
the theory that behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans and perceptions
cognitive perspective
a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
Sociocultural perspective
a psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential , rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior
feminist psychology
a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes
reductionism
the process of reducing a phenomenon to a single type of explanation or to a limited set of elements or a particular type
theory
an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
hypothesis
a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested
operational definition
a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined
principle of falsifiability
the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not happen
descriptive methods
methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations
case study
a detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated
observational studies
a study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation
psychological tests
procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values
standardization
in test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
norms (in testing)
in test construction, established standards of performance
reliability
In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another
validity
the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
surveys
questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experience, attitudes, or opinions
representative sample
a group f students, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex
volunteer bias
a shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer
correlation study
a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena
correlation
a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another
variables
characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale; variables are manipulated and assessed in scientific studies
positive correlation
an association between increases in one variable and increases in another
negative correlation
an association between increases in one variable and decreases in another
coefficient of a correlation
a measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00
experiment
a controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another
independent variable
a variable that an experimenter manipulates
dependent variable
a variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable
control condition
in an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment of the experimental condition
random assignment
a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other or being assigned to a given group
placebo
an inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient
single-blind study
an experiment in which subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group
experimenter effects
unintended changes in subjects' behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter
double-blind study
an experiment in which neither the subjects nor the individuals running the study show which subjects are in the control group and which are in the experimental group until after the results are tallied
field research
descriptive or experimental research conducted in a neutral setting outside the laboratory
descriptive statistics
statistical procedures that organize and summarize a body of data
arithmetic mean
an average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set
standard deviation
a commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between scores in a distribution and their mean
inferential statistics
statistical procedures that allow researches to draw inference about how statistically meaningful a study's results are
significance tests
statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study's results reoccurred merely by chance