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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the clinical uses of finasteride (propecia)?
Benign prostate hyperplasia and male-pattern baldness
What is the mechanism of finasteride?
5alpha reductase inhibitor --> decreases conversion of testosterone to dihydotestosterone
What is the clinical use of flutamide?
Prostate carcinoma
What is the mechanism of flutamide?
Non-steroidal competitive inhibitor of androgens at the testosterone receptor
Ketoconazole and spironolactone can be used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome and hirsutism. What are some potential side effects?
Gynecomastia and amenorrhea
How does ketoconazole act?
Inhibit steroid synthesis
How does spironolactone act?
Inhibit steroid binding
What is the clinical use of leuprolide?
Infertility (pulsatile), prostate cancer (continuous - use with flutamide), uterine fibroids
What is the mechanism of leuprolide?
GnRH analog - agonist when pulsatile; antagonist when continuous
What is the toxicty of leuprolide?
Antiandrogen, nausea, vomiting
What are the clinical uses of sildenafil and vardenafil?
Erectile dysfunciton
What is the mechanism of sildenafil and vardenafil?
Inhibit cGMP phosphodiesterase --> increase cGMP smooth muscle relaxation in corpus cavernosum, increased blood flow and penile erection
What is the toxicity of sildenafil and vardenafil?
Headache, flushing, dyspepsia, impaired blue-green color vision; do not take nitrates! Risk of life-threatening hypotension
What is the clinical use of mifepristone (RU-486)?
Termination of pregancy (admin with misoprostol)
What is the mechanism of mifepristone?
Competitive inhibitor of progestins at progesterone receptor
What is the toxicity of mifepristone?
Heavy bleeding, GI effects: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain
What is the effect of oral contraceptives on endometrial and ovarian cancer?
Decrease risk of both
What is dinoprostone?
PGE2 analog that causes cervical dilation and uterine contraction --> induces labor
What is ritodrine/terbutaline?
Beta2 agonists that relax the uterus
What is anastrozole?
Aromotase inhibitor used in postmenopausal women with breast cancer
What is the clinical use of methyltestosterone?
Treat hypogonadism and promote development of secondary sex characteristics; stimulation of anabolism to promote recovery after burn or injury; treat ER-positive breast cancer (exemestane)
What is the toxicity of methyltestosterone?
Masculinization in females, decreases intratesticular testosterone in mlaes by inhibiting Leydig cells, leading to gonadal atrophy; premature closure of epiphyseal plates; increase LDL, decrease HDL
What is the clinical use of ethinyl estradiol, DES, mestranol?
Hypogonadism or ovarian failure, menstrual abnormalities, HRT in postmenopausal women; androgen-dependent cancer in men
What is the toxicity of ethinyl estradiol, DES, mestranol?
Increase risk of endometrial cancer, bleeding in postmenopausal women, clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina in females exposed to DES in utero, increased risk of thrombi; contraindicated in ER-positive breast cancer
What is the clinical use of progestins?
Oral contraceptives + treatment of endometrial cancer and abnormal uterine bleeding
What the clinical use of clomiphene?
Infertility and PCOS
What is the mechanism of clomiphene?
Partial agonist at estrogen receptors in hypothalamus --> prevent normal feedback inhibition and increase release of LH and FSH from pituitary --> stimulate ovulation
What is the toxicity of clomiphene?
Hot flashes, ovarian enlargement, multiple simultaneous pregnancies, visual disturbances
What is the clinical use and mechanism of tamoxifen?
Estrogen antagonist on breast tissue; treat and prevent recurrence of ER-positive breast cancer
What is the clinical use and mechanism of raloxifene?
Estrogen agonist on bone; reduces reabsorption --> treat osteoporosis