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50 Cards in this Set

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What kind of tissue encapsulates the kidneys?
Dense, irregular CT
What are the components of the renal cortex?
- Renal corpuscles
- Proximal and distal tubules
- Capillaries
- Medullary rays
- Renal corpuscles
- Proximal and distal tubules
- Capillaries
- Medullary rays
What is shown in this slide?
What is shown in this slide?
Renal Corpuscle:
- Glomerulus
- Mesangial Cells
- Bowman's Capsule
Renal Corpuscle:
- Glomerulus
- Mesangial Cells
- Bowman's Capsule
What are Mesangial Cells? What is their function?
What are Mesangial Cells? What is their function?
- Modified smooth muscle cells (pericytes)
- Support the glomerulus
- May play a role in maintenance of the glomerular basement membrane
- Modified smooth muscle cells (pericytes)
- Support the glomerulus
- May play a role in maintenance of the glomerular basement membrane
What structure can you see with the light microscope surrounding the glomerulus?
What structure can you see with the light microscope surrounding the glomerulus?
Parietal layer of Bowman's Capsule can be seen
Parietal layer of Bowman's Capsule can be seen
What makes up the Parietal layer of Bowman's Capsule?
What makes up the Parietal layer of Bowman's Capsule?
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Simple Squamous Epithelium
What makes up the Visceral layer of Bowman's Capsule?
Podocytes
The nuclei within the glomerulus belong to what three types of cells? Can they be distinguished (if so, how)?
- Capillary Endothelial Cells (E)
- Podocytes (P)
- Mesangial Cells

- It is very difficult to distinguish them at the light microscope level w/o special staining techniques
- Capillary Endothelial Cells (E)
- Podocytes (P)
- Mesangial Cells

- It is very difficult to distinguish them at the light microscope level w/o special staining techniques
What is the clear space between the glomerulus and the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule called? What does this space contain?
What is the clear space between the glomerulus and the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule called? What does this space contain?
Urinary Space - contains a plasma ultrafiltrate (fluid that passed from the lumen of the capillaries into this space)
Urinary Space - contains a plasma ultrafiltrate (fluid that passed from the lumen of the capillaries into this space)
What components make up the filtration barrier through which fluid passes in going from the glomerular capillaries into the urinary space?
- Fenestrated Capillary Epithelium
- Fused Basal Laminae of capillary endothelial cells
- Podocytes
- Diaphragm-covered filtration slits between Podocyte foot processes
- Fenestrated Capillary Epithelium
- Fused Basal Laminae of capillary endothelial cells
- Podocytes
- Diaphragm-covered filtration slits between Podocyte foot processes
What can be seen in this image?
What can be seen in this image?
Vascular Pole
- Afferent arteriole supplies the glomerular capillaries
- Efferent arteriole drains them
Vascular Pole
- Afferent arteriole supplies the glomerular capillaries
- Efferent arteriole drains them
What can be seen in this image?
What can be seen in this image?
Urinary Pole
- Where plasma ultrafiltrate exits the renal corpuscle
Urinary Pole
- Where plasma ultrafiltrate exits the renal corpuscle
What can be seen in this image?
What can be seen in this image?
Proximal Tubule
- This is the first place the plasma ultriafiltrate enters into
Proximal Tubule
- This is the first place the plasma ultriafiltrate enters into
What is a nephron?
- Functional unit of the kidney
- Consists of a renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule
Proximal Tubules:
- Epithelium?
- Lumen characteristics?
- Cell borders?
- Nuclei?
- Cytoplasm?
- High cuboidal
- Occluded lumen (d/t microvilli)
- Indistinct cell borders
- Few nuclei, basally located in a plane
- Eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm
- High cuboidal
- Occluded lumen (d/t microvilli)
- Indistinct cell borders
- Few nuclei, basally located in a plane
- Eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
Proximal Tubule cells:
- High cuboidal
- Occluded lumen (d/t long microvilli / brush border)
- Indistinct cell borders (b/c lateral walls highly inter-digitated)
- Few nuclei, basally located in a plane (b/c large cells)
- Eosinophilic, granu...
Proximal Tubule cells:
- High cuboidal
- Occluded lumen (d/t long microvilli / brush border)
- Indistinct cell borders (b/c lateral walls highly inter-digitated)
- Few nuclei, basally located in a plane (b/c large cells)
- Eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm (d/t lots of mito and basal membrane infoldings)
What is the function of the cells in the Proximal Tubule?
What is the function of the cells in the Proximal Tubule?
- Passive reabsorption: Na+, Cl-, H2O
- Facilitated reabsorption: glucose, AA, proteins
- Passive reabsorption: Na+, Cl-, H2O
- Facilitated reabsorption: glucose, AA, proteins
How does the number of Proximal Tubules compare to Distal Tubules in a given section? Why?
More Proximal Tubules / section because DTs are shorter than PTs
Distal Tubules:
- Epithelium?
- Lumen characteristics?
- Cell borders?
- Nuclei?
- Cytoplasm?
- Low cuboidal epithelium
- Open, wide, smooth contouring lumen
- Indistinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
- Low cuboidal epithelium
- Open, wide, smooth contouring lumen
- Indistinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
Distal Tubules:
- Low cuboidal epithelium
- Open, wide, smooth contouring lumen (no brush border)
- Indistinct cell borders (d/t extensive inter-digitations)
- Many, centrally located nuclei (smaller cells, so more likely to have nuclei in sec...
Distal Tubules:
- Low cuboidal epithelium
- Open, wide, smooth contouring lumen (no brush border)
- Indistinct cell borders (d/t extensive inter-digitations)
- Many, centrally located nuclei (smaller cells, so more likely to have nuclei in section)
- Pale cytoplasm
What is the function of the cells in the Distal Tubule?
What is the function of the cells in the Distal Tubule?
Resorption of Cl- and Na+
Resorption of Cl- and Na+
What kind of cells are circled? How can you tell?
What kind of cells are circled? How can you tell?
Macula Densa of Distal Tubule
- Forms a disk of tightly packed columnar cells in the region of the vascular pole
Macula Densa of Distal Tubule
- Forms a disk of tightly packed columnar cells in the region of the vascular pole
What is the function of the Macula Densa (circled)?
What is the function of the Macula Densa (circled)?
Monitors Na+ concentration and volume of the ultra-filtrate
Monitors Na+ concentration and volume of the ultra-filtrate
What larger structure is the Macula Densa apart of that includes specialized cells in a portion of the afferent arteriole?
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
What is the secretory product of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus cells of the Afferent Arteriole?
Renin
In what part of the kidney do the thick descending limbs of the Loop of Henle descend?
Within Medullary Rays into the Medulla
Loop of Henle:
- Epithelium?
- Thick part is cuboidal
- Thin part is squamous
- Thick part is cuboidal
- Thin part is squamous
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
Thin part of Loop of Henle:
- Tubules lined by simple squamous epithelium, lacking RBCs
(Tubules lined by simple squamous epithelium w/ RBCs in their lumens are capillaries)
Thin part of Loop of Henle:
- Tubules lined by simple squamous epithelium, lacking RBCs
(Tubules lined by simple squamous epithelium w/ RBCs in their lumens are capillaries)
Collecting Duct:
- Epithelium?
- Lumen characteristics?
- Cell borders?
- Nuclei?
- Cytoplasm?
- Cuboidal to Columnar epithelium
- Open, scalloped edge lumen because cells bulge inwards
- Distinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
- Cuboidal to Columnar epithelium
- Open, scalloped edge lumen because cells bulge inwards
- Distinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
What kind of cells are these? How can you tell?
Collecting Duct:
- Cuboidal to Columnar epithelium
- Open, scalloped edge lumen because cells bulge inwards
- Distinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
Collecting Duct:
- Cuboidal to Columnar epithelium
- Open, scalloped edge lumen because cells bulge inwards
- Distinct cell borders
- Many, centrally located nuclei
- Pale cytoplasm
What makes up the stroma of the kidney?
Primarily reticular fibers (although the stroma-supportive tissue is not as predominant as it is in other organs)
Primarily reticular fibers (although the stroma-supportive tissue is not as predominant as it is in other organs)
What are the layers/tunics of the ureter? Inner to outer?
- Mucosa - innermost
- Muscularis - middle
- Adventitia - outermost
- Mucosa - innermost
- Muscularis - middle
- Adventitia - outermost
What layer of the ureter supports the epithelium?
Lamina Propria / Mucosa
Lamina Propria / Mucosa
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the ureter?
Transitional Epithelium
What is layer A?
What is layer A?
Adventitia (outermost tunic) of ureter
Adventitia (outermost tunic) of ureter
What is layer B?
What is layer B?
Muscularis (circular)
Muscularis (circular)
What is layer C?
What is layer C?
Muscularis (longitudinal)
Muscularis (longitudinal)
What is layer D?
What is layer D?
Mucosa
Mucosa
How are the layers of the smooth muscle arranged in the muscularis layer of the ureter?
Upper 2/3 of ureter:
- Inner layer is longitudinal muscle
- Outer layer is circular muscle
Upper 2/3 of ureter:
- Inner layer is longitudinal muscle
- Outer layer is circular muscle
How does the organization of the muscle in the muscularis layer of the ureter compare to the organization in the GI?
It is opposite, in the ureter:
- Inner layer is longitudinal muscle
- Outer layer is circular muscle
It is opposite, in the ureter:
- Inner layer is longitudinal muscle
- Outer layer is circular muscle
What are the layers/tunics of the bladder wall?
What are the layers/tunics of the bladder wall?
- Mucosa (inner)
- Muscularis (middle)
- Adventitia (outer)
- Mucosa (inner)
- Muscularis (middle)
- Adventitia (outer)
What type of epithelium lines the lumen of the bladder?
Transitional Endothelium (Urothelium)
Transitional Endothelium (Urothelium)
What are the components of the Tunica Mucosa in the Urinary Bladder?
- Transitional epithelium (urothelium)
- Underlying lamina propria (mostly fibrous CT)
What kind of fibers are found within the lamina propria and muscularis of the bladder wall?
Elastin - refractile, pink staining fibers (they are much more coarse in the muscularis)
What layers of the bladder contain Elastin?
Lamina Propria and Muscularis (musch more coarse in Muscularis)
When fixed, this bladder was in what state?
When fixed, this bladder was in what state?
Relaxed
Relaxed
Because the bladder is a saccular organ, how many layers does it have in the smooth muscle wall?
3
How common is urinary bladder cancer?
4th most common tumor in men and 8th most common tumor in women
What is a common presenting symptom of bladder cancer?
Gross, painless hematuria (90%)
Approximately 95% of bladder cancers arise from what cell type?
Transitional Cell (Urothelial) Carcinoma