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37 Cards in this Set

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Define scripture and state the importance

1. a textual tradition that is authoritative because it is holy


2. When a tradition becomes scripture, it becomes fixed


3. overtime, scripture needs to be interpreted in order to connect that fixed language to changing reality


4. Important because it is crucial to the three religions

Define New Testament and state its importance

1. Christian


2. four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John)


3. letters of Paul


4. Miscellaneous: Acts, Revelations


5. It is important because it states the life of Jesus and defines Christianity from Judaism

Define the Qur'an and state its importance

1. Islam


2. Gabrielle speaks on behalf of God


3. highly poetic


4. not chronological


5. contains secrete history (Abraham and Jesus)


6. Important because it is critical to the religion of Islam.

Define Peshat and state its importance

1. the plain sense in the level of Jewish interpretation


2. Important because it is what the text initially says


3. other levels include derash (the interpreted meaning) and remez (the hinted meaning)

Define Midrash and state its importance

1. Jewish Oral Torah


2. Interpretation of Biblical text


3. Hebrew for "Inquiry"


4. Important because it

Define Abraham and state his importance

1. He is found in all three religions.


2. Chosen by God but not known why


3. Circumcision (physical representation/mark)


4. Willing to sacrifice his son to God


5. Important because he is a prominent role in all the Abrahamic relgions

Define the Binding of Isaac and its importance

1. Abraham was told by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, in the land of Moriah


2. Genesis Hebrew Bible


3. Isaac was bound and readied to be sacrificed, but God intervened and saved him and blessed Abraham


4. Important because it revealed the promise of offspring (religious followers) and the importance of faith.

Define Ishmael and his importance

1. A son of Abraham


2. Muslims believe he was to be sacrificed, not Isaac


3. He was not biological son of Sarah


4. Was sent into desert with slave-mom


5. Important because it is the story of Islam beginings

Define the Covenant and its importance

1. Judaism


2. An intimate and exclusive relationship between God and Israel


3. Torah defines rights and obligations of each partner


4. Important because it promised Abraham that through him, his family would be blessed (Jewish lineage)

Define the trinity and importance

1. Christian doctrine that proclaims that while there is only one God, he has revealed himself as triune


2. One God in three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit


3. Important because it was created to help explain the Bible, and many people believe it.

Define Shahada and importance

1. Muslim profession of faith


2. "There is no God but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God"


3. Importance is that it shows that Islam is monotheistic and that Muhammad is not meant to be worshipped

Define the Nicene Creed and importance

1. 325 CE


2. Articulation of Christian faith


3. Deals with relationships between the trinity


4. Church affirmed this creed to be Christian


5. Important because it shows that the church accepts the trinity to be true

Describe the 13 Principles of Faith and importance

1. Written by the Jew Moses Maimonides.


2. Negative theology (God is undescribable)


3. Only one God


4. Coming of Messiah


5. relations between God and Israel


6. Important because some Jewish people believe that these principles are the foundation principles of Judaism

Define Fikh Akhbar II and importance

1. Muslim


2. nothing resembles God


3. God is Creator, not created


4. moistening of shoes


5. afterlife


6. Important because it has numerous articles which detail important concepts in Islam

Monotheism

1. Belief in one God


2. Important because all three religions are monotheistic

Polytheism

1. Belief in many gods


2. Pre-Islamic Arabia


3. important because it creates a distinction between the three religions being monotheistic and also because some people fight Christianity on it because of the trinity

Mecca

1. Islamic Holy place


2. has Kaaba


3. Muhammad preached publicly there


4. Important because it is very holy and Muslims face it when they pray

Define Medina and Importance

1. 622 CE persecution of Mecca Muslims leads to the Hijra (emigration) to Medina


2. Important because it is a crucial place in Islamic history

Define Revelation and importance

1. the manifestation of the divine will and truth


2. Important because it helps Christians imagine what will happen in the end time

Angel Gabriel

1. An angel which is prevalent in all three religions


2. He is a messenger


3. He is important because he delivered messages in all three religions

Define Allah and importance

1. Arabic term for God


2. Important because, even though it is a different word, the God in the abrahamic religions is the same

Define Rumi and his importance

1. Muslim mystic poet


2. Ode 314


3. Important because he wrote about the passionate love of God and to let those who don't feel it, sleep on

Define Sufism and importance

1. Islam's mystical path (mysticism)


2. Poets like Rumi


3. Important because it helps express a longing for God


Define Kabbalah and importance

1. Jewish mysticism


2. Like Eliezer Azikiri


3. Important because it expresses the love for God

Define Jesus and Nazareth and his importance

1. The son of God according to Christianity


2. Not seen as the son on God to Judaism


3. Recognized in Islam


4. Important because he sacrificed himself to absolve all the sins of humanity for Christians

Define Messiah and importance

1. Hebrew for "anointed one"


2. Judaism - descendent of David


3. Christianity - refers to Jesus of Nazareth


4. Important because it helps show the distinction between Christianity and Judaism. Jews don't believe Jesus was Messiah, Christians do

Define Oral Torah and importance

1. teachings transmitted from one communal rabbi or leader to another


2. examples include Midrash, Mishnah, and Talmud


3. Important because it shows that Judaism is does not only have a written Torah, but also a spoken one

Define Prophet and importance

1. messenger of God


2. Important because all three religions have them and in Islam, a major distinction is made between Muhammad being just a prophet and not God himself

Define Patriarch and importance

1. Greek for "leader of the homeland"


2. succession of rabbinic leaders in Palestine from the late first to early fifth century


3. Title used in the Catholic and Orthodox churches by the bishops of the principle cities


4. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob


5. Important because they are known as the founders of Judaism

Define Tafsir and importance

1. Our'anic interpretation


2. Important because it's objective is to find out the true meaning of verses in the Qur'an (message understanding increases)

Define Gospels and importance

1. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John


2. Narrate the story of the life and work of Jesus


3. Synoptic


4. authorative and not eye-witness


5. Matthew (Hebrew Bible Quotes)


6. Matthew and Luke are based on Mark (oldest) and may also be drawn from another lost source


7. John (theological gospel)


8. Important because they detail the life of Jesus through different perspectives

Define Paul and his importance

1. Letters from him are found in the New Testament


2. First major missionary to preach the Christian gospel


3. Important because he started preaching to non-Jews (increasing religion)

Define resurrection and importance

1. When Jesus resurrected three days after being sacrificed


2. Important because this is a major belief in Christianity

Define Protestant Reformation and importance

1. 1517CE


2. Luther's "95 Thesis"


3. translation of the Bible into local languages begins


4. Important because it decreased the sale of indulgences, and led to the Christian branch, Lutheran.

Define Hadith and importance

1. report of Muhammad's life


2. Important because Muhammad's life is important to Muslims

Define Canonization

1. must be accepted by most of the consensus


2. must be authentic and accurate


3. revelatory : religious


4. Important because religious documents must pass these requirements to become fixed religious texts

Define orthodoxy and importance

1. Right belief


2. important because Christianity is intended to be correct belief