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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which is not one of the characteristics of the Indigenous justice paradigm?
Vertical Power Structure
Which ethnic/racial group has the least amount of confidence in the courts?
What is the relationship of being released on bail and whether someone is convicted?
98% of people released on bail were acquitted
What does the 8th amendment say bout bail?
should not be excessive
Bail statutes require judges to consider risk factors of what type?
race of victim
In the early 20th century Mexicans in LA were represented by a stellar public defense system?
What Supreme Court case ruled that all felony defendants have a right to counsel?
Gideon vs. Wainwright
What concept explains when jurors ignore the evidence and acquit someone who is guilty?
Jury Nullification
The use of what practice allows both the prosecution and defense to remove jurors without cause?
Voir Dire
Early in American history, plea bargaining was frowned upon by JS officials?
In the event of a jury trial, the jury selection process begins with, or the selection of a jury pool?
Race and jury pool (selection)
____ is credited with starting the first drug court in 1989
Dade County, FL
Crimes committed by non-Indians on reservations?
The focus of drug courts and punishment.
The only concern with drug courts is that they cost more than incarcerating offenders.
According to recent research drug court participants tend to have lower recidivism rates than non drug court participants.
The Indigenous Paradigm of Justice values written records
Racial disparities in sentencing have only been found in studies focusing on felony sentencing.
The justification for punishments amount to what are generally referred to as “philosophies of punishment” or___?
Sentencing philosophies
What concept represents the punishment given most of the slaves in early colonial cases reviewed in the text
Three strikes you’re out laws and recent sentencing innovation.
What is the Supreme Court case that decided that mandatory crack penalties were advisory in nature and judges could take into account sentencing disparities related to different types of drugs?
Kimbrough vs. United States
What was the ethnic group that was involved in most of the crime in Colonial NY?
The “get tough” approach included what acts except?
Excludes mandatory minimum statuses
One of the most popular sentencing approaches adopted during the 197s was?
Presumptive Sentencing Guidelines
Once the Federal Sentencing Guidelines were enacted in 1984, federal parole was eliminated?
The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy was officially established under the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
Separating sentencing research into 4 waves, this scholar provided a summary of the diverse research on race and sentencing?
What factors was not found by Spohn to be a contributor to racial minorities being sentenced more harshly than Whites?
More education
Which sentencing philosophy is not tied to the conservative approach or crime control model?
Bill Clinton was the president who pushed to equalize the crack-cocaine and powder cocaine sentences?
Recent court cases have made more a large # of prisoners convicted of crack-cocaine offenses eligible for early release.
Do Asian Americans have greater representation in the judiciary than Blacks?
Between what yrs did sentences on drug charges increase by more than 1,000%?
Between 1980 and 1992
More than 150 yrs ago, he became the first black man to be appointed as a judge.
Robert Morris
What group was at the top of Catteral’s Hierarchy of Social Precedence in Colonial America?
White indigent servants
An increasing finding in studies of both state and federal courts is that are receiving the harshest sentences.
What concept was the term used to describe the large # of offenses that resulted in the death sentence in England
Bloody Codes
What courts cases resulted in elimination of the use of the death penalty in rape cases?
Coker vs. Georgia
Which of the following is not one of the primary challenges faced by the wrongfully convicted who are exonerated?
In 1740, what state imposed the death penalty on slaves and free blacks for burning or destroying any grain, commodities, or manufactured goods?
South Carolina
What state has not been one of the more active death penalty states since 1977?
Mississippi 7 since 1976
The thesis that states replaced lynchings with the death penalty is known as?
Subsitution Thesis
Within the last 50 yrs, what countries have eliminated the death penalty except?
It is likely the death penalty is still used as a punishment in the US b/c?
Strong public support
During the slave era, masters were not compensated for the execution of their slaves?
Some states have compensation packages for wrongfully-convicted offenders.
What Supreme Court Justice is known for his hypotheses regarding public opinion on the death penalty?
Thurgood Marshall
Blacks with higher incomes tend to be more approving of the DP than lower income blacks.
Most of the persons who have been executed since the reinstitution of the DP in 1977 are white.
This initiative examined numerous aspects of jurors who served on cases involving the DP?
Capital Jury Project
Racial groups support or lack thereof for the death penalty?
This philosophy is based on the premise that since the CJS works for most citizens, we can tolerate it when a small # of citizens is wrongfully convicted?
Trial by combat
What factors contributes to a wrongful conviction except?
Jury gender
The actions of former Illinois Gov. George Ryan sparked this movement?
Death Penalty
According to recent research murders involving white female’s victims decreases the likelihood that one will receive the DP?
The 1976 Supreme Court decision that allowed states that used guided discretion statues to reinstitute the DP was?
Gregg vs. Georgia