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19 Cards in this Set

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List 2 important differences between Genesis and The Epic of Creation?

1. In Genesis, God created light and day, dry land and the waters, the sky and the earth. In EOC, Apsu, freshwater, was created first, then Tiamat, saltwater, and after that was a list of other important figures, Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, Kishar, etc.


List 2 important similarities between Genesis and The Epic of Creation?

1. Both are written with repetition in them, possibly to emphasize that these accounts were originally oral traditions and that written literature was not the main source of these creation stories


Who are the first two principles in the Epic of Gilgamesh?

Apsu- freshwater


What happens to Apsu?

Tiamat and Apsu mingled to create several gods. The gods produced so much noise that Apsu decided to do away with them. Tiamat, urged patience, but Apsu was unmoved. The gods, stunned by the prospect of death, called Ea to save them. Ea recited a spell that made Apsu sleep. He then killed Apsu and captured Mummu, his vizier.

What happens to Tiamat?

Ea and his wife Damkina give birth to Marduk, given control of the four winds by the sky god Anu, is told to let the winds whirl. Picking up dust, the winds create storms that upset and confound Tiamat. Other gods complain that they cannot sleep because of the hurricane winds & urge Tiamat to do battle against Marduk so that they can rest. Tiamat agrees and decides to confront Marduk. When Ea hears of the preparations for battle, he seeks advice from his father, Anshar, king of the junior gods. Anshar urges Ea and afterward his brother Anu to appease the goddess with incantations. Both return frightened and demoralized by their failure. The young warrior god Marduk then volunteers his strength in return for a promise that, if victorious, he will become king of the gods. The gods agree, a battle ensues, and Marduk vanquishes Tiamat and Qingu, her host. Marduk then uses Tiamat’s carcass for the purpose of creation. He splits her in half, “like a dried fish,” and places one part on high to become the heavens, the other half to be the earth. From various parts of Tiamat’s body, he creates the clouds, winds, mists, mountains, and earth.

What happens to Apsu and Tiamat?

Apsu(fresh water) and Tiamet(salt water). They both die because God of Knowledge Ea hears there plans and kills Apsu and that casts revenge for Tiamet and then Marduk kills her and creates the Earth from that

What is the name for a creation story that describes a series of generational conflicts?


In the Theogony of Dunnu, what are the first two beings?

Plough and Earth - they represent the beginning

How do they differ from the Epic ofCreation’s first two principles? What does this tell us about Mesopotamian notions of the origins of the world?

In Theogony of Dunnum, each mating between pieces of the Earth gives rise to a new portion until the Earth has been fully created. Each individual takes reign during a new month, also showing a cycle of seasons through the calendar year, culminating with the New Year.

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, what is the name of the sun god, and what role does he play in the epic?

Shamash, he is there protector the god Gilgamesh and Enkidu and give sacrifices too along there journey to kill humbaba. Their mother asked for him to watch over them.

Why is Enkidu made?

To counteract Gilgamesh's immoral actions (he was sleeping with virgin brides

What is the technicalterm for Gilgamesh’s right of sleeping first with the bride on her wedding day?

Primae noctis

How does Enkidu end this practice onthe part of Gilgamesh?

Enkidu challenges Gilgamesh to a contest of strength. Gilgamesh, who is stronger, eventually wrestles Enkidu to the ground. They immediately forget their anger. Enkidu concedes that Gilgamesh is the rightful king of Uruk and pledges his fidelity. Gilgamesh declares his undying friendship to his former rival. The two men kiss and embrace.

What is the name of Gilgamesh’s mother? What important act does she do for Enkidu? Why is this important?

This gesture demonstrates that Enkidu's appeal extends to all those he has met in Uruk, not just Gilgamesh. Though they are not blood relatives, they appear as if they are twins. Enkidu's adoption allows him to have a family, a human family that accepts him. When Gilgamesh first met Enkidu, he had no one "to cut his hair." Now, he has a brother whom he will follow into the most dangerous battles.

Describe (very briefly, in bullet points) the different stages that Enkidu undergoes from animal to civilized man.

1. He is an animal eating breast milk from animals and eating the grass on the lands.

2. Sex with Shamahat

3:return to jungle but they run away from him and he cant keep up

4:Knowledge gained that he doesn't belong to that world anymore

5:takes part in human activities (eating bread, drinking, listening, talking)

Nowat night he goes and protects the Shepherds camp from animals - so he's changed sides

What two actions seem to be the cause of Enkidu’s death at the hands of the gods?

His lack of respect for the gods - they kill Humbaba and steal the tallest tree against the will of the God Enlil

What is the name of the woman who sleeps with Enkidu? What effect does this act have on Enkidu? What does Enkiduhave to say about her when he is about to die?

Shamhat; it makes Enkidu loses his innocence he is no longer considered an animal. He scorns her initially for leading him to death but then after he realizes how much he has gained and experienced friendship, food, love, and battle he takes it back and wishes her rich and plentiful patrons.

Besides Enkidu’s loss of innocence and acquisition of knowledge (because of his intercourse with Shamhat), where elsehave we read of something similar? Briefly describe this situation.

In the genesis, when adam and eve eat from the forbidden fruit they lose their innocence they see all good and that is bad.

What is a possible explanation for Utu’s/Shamash’s interest in encouraging Gilgamesh and Enkidu to kill Humbaba?

Because Humbaba represents darkness and that is against the light of which is Shamash the sun god. He probably can't directly attack Humbaba since that is the supporter of the God enlil.