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10 Cards in this Set

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A 6-month-old infant arrives in the ED with a 12-hour history of poor feeding, emesis, and irritability. On exam, she is ill-appearing with T 39.2 C, P 160 bpm, R 40 bpm, BP 80/50 mmHg. CBC shows WBC 11.2, Hgb 13.5, Plt 250. Urinalysis shows > 100 WBC per hpf, positive leukocyte esterase, and positive nitrites. She has no history of prior urinary tract infection. Chest x-ray is negative. Urine and blood cultures are pending. After bringing her fever down, she was still uninterested in drinking, but her exam improved, and you were confident she did not have meningitis, so an LP was not performed. Which of the following is the best next step in management?

Intravenous ceftriaxone

Treatment for infant with UTI

  • parenteral third generation cephalosporin (e.g. IV ceftriaxone)
A 3-month-old male presents to the ED with a fever that started the previous day. Mother reports that he was fussy and had decreased oral intake. He had had five fewer diaper changes than usual. He had no vomiting, diarrhea, or respiratory difficulty. On physical exam his temperature is 101.6 F, pulse 110 bpm, RR 24 bpm, and BP 95/67 mmHg. The baby seems irritable and is not consolable by the parent. HEENT exam was significant for dry mucous membranes. Other than his irritability, the rest of the physical exam was unremarkable. CBC showed WBC 3.5, but was otherwise normal. BMP was within normal limits. Urinalysis showed positive leukocyte esterase, positive nitrite, and WBCs > 10/hpf. An LP was performed, and urine and CSF culture results are pending. The patient is placed on IV fluids and is started on cefotaxime. What is the next best step in evaluation?

Renal bladder US

When is VCUG indiated?

recurrent UTI


abnormal renal US

A 10-day-old boy is brought to the ED by his mother because of “fever.” Mom describes that the baby has been “sleepy” and feeding less vigorously than in the previous two days. She believes his urine output has also decreased. His birth history is notable for prolonged membrane rupture (about 32 hours), and maternal fever at the time of delivery. Prenatal and neonatal ultrasound revealed bilateral hydronephrosis. On exam, the infant is sleepy with a temperature of 38.5 C. A blood sample is sent for CBC, BMP, and culture. Attempts are made to obtain CSF and urine for analysis and culture, but only very small volumes of these fluids are obtained. Volume resuscitation is begun. Chest x-ray is performed with indeterminate results. What is the most appropriate next step?
Send samples for culture and begin parenteral antiobiotic treatment
A 6-month-old female is brought into the pediatrician’s office for three days of high fever, fussiness, and decreased appetite. The patient has not had any upper respiratory tract symptoms, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. On physical exam the patient is fussy, has a RR of 28 bpm and a pulse of 160 bpm. She is febrile to 102.8 F (rectal). The patient is alert and fully moving all extremities. Apart from her vital signs, no other significant exam findings are noted. A CBC demonstrates leukocytosis of 17.0 cells x 103 / µL with elevated bands. What diagnosis is most likely?
Urinary tract infection

most common bacterial illness in a female infant


high fever, fussiness, decreased appetite

Measles prodrome

3 Cs



  • cough
  • coryza (rhinitis)
  • conjunctivitis

Acute otitis media

  • fever
  • fussiness
  • inflamed, erythematous tympanic membranes
  • bulging of membrane (effusion)

Roseola


  • high fever
  • viral prodrome
  • diagnosis of exclusion
A 6-month-old female with normal birth and developmental history presents with fever for the past two days, fussiness, and decreased appetite. ROS is negative. No abnormalities are noted on the physical examination. A urinalysis from a bag specimen is positive for leukocytes and nitrite, which suggests the presence of a UTI; a culture from this sample is pending. The patient is ill-appearing, dehydrated, and unable to retain oral intake. She is hospitalized, receives a 20 cc/kg NS bolus and is placed on maintenance IV fluids with clinical improvement. What is the best next step for management of this patient?
  • Urinary catheterization
  • best method for obtaining a specimen for culture that has not been contaminated by perineal bacteria