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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following occurs in an olfactory receptor cell in response to binding of an odorant to the odorant receptor protein?
a) A g-protein mediated increase in cGMP
b) an increase in Ca++ influx produced by cAMP binding to a Ca++ channel.
c) Hyperpolarization of the neuron caused by an influx of chloride ions.
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C
B - An increase in Ca++ influx produced by cAMP binding to a Ca++ channel occurs in an olfactoy receptor cell in response to binding of an odorant to the odorant receptor protein.
The area of the brain containing the gustatory nucleus is the ---
a) Medulla
b) Thalamus
c) Hypothalamus
d) Cerebellum
e) Hippocampus
A - The area of the brain containing the gustatory nucleus is the medulla.
Which of the following statements concerning wiring the brain is correct?
A. Semaphorin 3A attracts dendrites.
B. Numb counters the effects of Notch-1.
C. Netrin acts as a chemorepellant with regard to axon growth.
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
D - Semaphorin 3A attracts dendrites and Numb counters the effects of Notch-1.
Netrin, however,
Which of the following areas is NOT part of the Papez circuit?
A. Pons
B. Hippocampus
C. Cingulate Cortex
D. Neocortex
E. Hypothalamus
A - pons
All of the following are characteristics of REM sleep except:
A. It is associated with dreaming
B. It occupies greater than 80% of our total sleep time
C. It is associated with very high brain energy consumption
D. There is usually a break of at least 30 minutes in between REM epsodes
E. It is associated with a good deal of general muscle paralysis
B
A brain tissue that, even when grown in tissue culture, exhibits circadian rhythms in peptide secretion:
A. Cerebellum
B. Anterior nuclei of the thalamus
C. Olfactory cortex
D. Nucleus accumbens
E. Suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus
E
A decrease in blood volume signals the body to:
A. Decrease vasopressin secretion
B. Increase oxytocin secretion
C. Increase renin secretion
D. Decrease insulin secretion
E. Increase leptin secretion
C
Monogamous behavior in montane voles can be induced via the production of higher brain levels of:
A. Cortisol
B. Vasopressin Receptors
C. Testosterone
D. Estradiol
E. Tyrosine hydroxylase
B
The main cell body area for serotonin neurons in the brain:
A. Locus Coeruleus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Striatum
D. Septum
E. Raphe Nuclei
E
An animal model used to study potential drugs for treatment of anxiety disorders:
A. Aggression against an animal foreign to the home cage
B. Alcohol consumption test
C. Startle response test
D. Amphetamine self-administration test
E. Electrical self-stimulation test
C
Indicate which of the following statements concerning sex hormones is correct:
A. Men do not have circulating estradiol
B. Women do not have circulating testosterone
C. LH in males inhibits testosterone production
D. LH in women inhibits estrogen secretion
E. FSH in males stimulates sperm maturation
E
All of the following are associated with producing a decrease in appetite except:
A. aMSH
B. Leptin
C. CART
D. Orexin
E. Insulin
D
Fluoxetine (Prozac) is relatively selective inhibitor of:
A. Voltage-gated sodium channels
B. Dopamine receptors
C. Serotonin reuptake
D. Tyrosine Hydroxylase
E. NMDA receptors
C
An agent secreted into the general circulation by the terminals of the magnocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland:
A. Cortisol (Hydrocortisone)
B. Renin
C. Vasopressin
D. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
E. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
C
The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system have their cell bodies in:
A. The sacral part of the spinal cord
B. The thoracic part of the spinal cord
C. The lumbar part of the spinal cord
D. A and B
E. B and C
E
All of the following statements concerning memory formation are correct except:
A. Induction of both LTP (Long-term Potentiation) and LTD (Long-term depression) in brain tissue slices depends upon the entry of Ca++
B. Drosophila with mutations in CREB-1 show enhanced long-term memory
C. Long-term memory requires new protein synthesis
D. CREB-1 is a transcription factor
E. CREB-1 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase A
B
In which brain area has it been reported (by Levay) that there is a difference in size in brain nuclei in heterosexual vs. homosexual men and straight women?
A. Frontal Lobe
B. Thalamus
C. Hypothalamus
D. Temporal lobe
E. Amygdala
C - Hypothalamus
Benzodiazepines, such as Valium and Xanax:
A. Inhibit dopamine reuptake
B. Inhibit acetylcholine metabolism
C. Inhibit serotonin reuptake
D. Potentiate GABA action at GABAa Receptors
E. Stimulate glutamate reuptake
D. Potentiate GABA action at GABAa Receptors
Indicate which of the following statements concerning schizophrenia is correct:
A. Type I symptoms are associated with hallucinations and paranoid ideation
B. An initial side effect of treatment with haloperidol is hyperkinesia
C. Symptoms of schizophrenia can be reduced by administration of PCP.
D. The most common therapeutic treatment of schizophrenia is Prozac (fluoxetine)
E. Haloperidol produces less of a tardive dyskinesia side effect compared to clozapine
A. Type I symptoms are associated with hallucinations and paranoid ideation
The main cell body area for norepinephrine neurons in the brain:
A. Septum
B. Locus Coeruleus
C. Substantia Nigra
D. Raphe Nuclei
E. Basal Nucleus of Meynert
B. Locus Coeruleus
If one identical twin suffers from manic-depressive disorder (bipolar depression) the chance that the other twin also will is:
A. Less than 5%
B. Between 10 and 20%
C. Between 20 and 30%
D. Between 50 and 80%
E. Between 95 and 100%
D. Between 50 and 80%
All of the following statements concerning cortisol are correct except:
A. It is secreted from the adrenal cortex
B. ACTH stimulates its secretion
C. It is part of the body's stress response
D. It helps stimulate glucose formation
E. It signals the hypothalamus to increase release of CRH
E
All of the following statements concerning wiring are correct except:
A. Slit needs robo to affect axon growth
B. MuSK has protein kinase activity
C. Agrin is secreted from the muscle at the future site of a neuromuscular junction
D. Apoptosis is a procedure that eliminates extra synapses
E. Agrin knockout mice don't form neuromuscular junctions.
C. Agrin is secreted from the muscle at the future site of a neuromuscular junction
Excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden muscular paralysis while consciousness is maintained), and direct passage from wakefulness to a REM-like state are characteristic of:
A. Depression
B. Schizophrenia
C. Phobic Disorder
D. Alzheimer's Disease
E. Narcolepsy
E. Narcolepsy
A rational approach to treating epilepsy:
A. Decrease GABA activity.
B. Increase glutamate activity.
C. Increase GABA activity.
D. A and B
E. B and C
C. Increase GABA activity.
All of the following statements statements concerning drug addiction are correct except:
A. Animals that are addicted will continue drug seeking despite adverse consequences
B. Addicted animals will continue drug seeking even with knowledge of drug's unavailability
C. Inhibitors of dopamine receptors reduce lever pressing for cocaine administration
D. When given free access to cocaine, 90-95% of rats will become addicts.
E. Craving for addictive for addictive drugs can continue even after a prolonged abstinence from the drug.
D. When given free access to cocaine, 90-95% of rats will become addicts.
Eating wine and cheese while taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) for depression is not a good idea because:
A. A compound found in wine an cheese will produce a dangerous increase in blood pressure
B. The MAOI will make the cheese taste bad
C. The alcohol will prevent the MAOI from working
D. The alcohol will combine with the MAOI to form a toxic metabolite
E. A compound found in wine and cheese will block the cardiac receptors for norepinephrine.
A. A compound found in wine an cheese will produce a dangerous increase in blood pressure
True or False: Cholecystokinin (CCK) release in the GI tract stimulates appetite.
F
True or False: The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that emotional experience can exist independently of emotional expression.
T
True or False: Amygdala lesions in humans reduce the ability to recognize fear in facial expressions.
T
True or False: The usual first choice of a drug to treat depression is monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor.
F
True or False: Ob/ob mice (ob for obese) produce an excess of leptin.
F
True or False: Estradiol is synthesized from Testosterone.
T
True or False: The preganglionic transmiter for the sympathetic nervous system is norepinephrine.
F
True or False: An XXY human will be predominantly, if not completely, a male.
T
True or False: Rat self-administration of amphetamine and cocaine has been found to increase the extracellular (synaptic cleft) concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
T
Reserpine is used to treat depression.
F
True or False: Olanzapine produces less of an incidence of tardive dyskinesia compared haloperidol.
T
True or False: Long-term potentiation is enhanced in the presence of NMDA receptor blockers MK-801.
F
True or False: SRY is a sex-determining protein.
F
True or False: In humans, brain cell differentiation is essentially complete at birth.
T
True or False: Insulin secretion is a short-term food satiety signal for the brain.
T
True or False: The time course for the clinical effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) in treating depression corresponds well with its time course for pharmacological effect on neurotransmitters.
F
True or False: Long-term potentiation is associated with an increase in AMPA receptor number in the post-synaptic dendrites.
T
True or False: Removal of the subfornical organ increases thirst produce by angiotensin II.
F
True or False: Inhibiting serotonin functioning in the brain increases aggression in rodents.
T
True or False: The "reptilian brain" contains the Papez circuit.
F
True or False: The EEG patterns of stages 3 and 4 of non-REM sleep are essentially identical to those of REM sleep.
F
True or False: Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit biogenic amine (catecholamine and/or serotonin) reuptake.
T
True or False: The dopamine-containing cell bodies in ventral tegmentum terminate in the nucleus accumbens.
T
How could one test the concept that a dopamine blocker naturally exists and functions in the brains of rats?
One could inject a purified brain extract into rat brains and observe whether or not Parkinsonian symptoms appear.
Who thought that cerebrum was the center of thought and consciousness because it's squishy and the the cerebellum controlled muscles because it's hard?
Galen
True or False: The EEG patterns of stages 3 and 4 of non-REM sleep are essentially identical to those of REM sleep.
F
True or False: Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit biogenic amine (catecholamine and/or serotonin) reuptake.
T
True or False: The dopamine-containing cell bodies in ventral tegmentum terminate in the nucleus accumbens.
T
How could one test the concept that a dopamine blocker naturally exists and functions in the brains of rats?
One could inject a purified brain extract into rat brains and observe whether or not Parkinsonian symptoms appear.
Who thought that cerebrum was the center of thought and consciousness because it's squishy and the the cerebellum controlled muscles because it's hard?
Galen
Descarte believed that:
A. Nerves were holllow tubes that carried fluid.
B. The mind communicated with brain via the pineal gland.
C. Personality traits could be determined via the shape of, and bumps on, the skull.
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
E
The Nernst Equation enables you to determine:
A. At what membrane potential the threshold potential will be reached.
B. The equilibrium potential for a permeable ion.
C. The number of ion channels in a neuron for a particular ion.
D. A and B.
E. B and C
B
Which of the following statements concerning the Nissl stain is correct?
A. It stains the mitochondria.
B. It stains RNA.
C. It stains ribosomes.
D. A and B
E. B and C
E
Which of the following match-ups is correct?
A. Dorsal horn of the spinal cord: source of exiting motor nerves.
B. Ventral horn of the spinal cord: Entry point for sensory neurons.
C. Tetrodotoxin: A blocker of sodium channels.
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
C
An example of an agent that will slow down the heart rate:
A. Atropine
B. Muscarine
C. Acetylcholine
D. A and B
E. B and C
E
Myelin in the brain is produced by:
A. Oligodendroglial cells
B. Pyramidal cells
C. Astrocytes
D. Schwann cells
E. None of the above
A
The neuronal smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is involved in:
A. ATP production
B. Sequestering intracellular calcium
C. Releasing calcium to the intracellular cytoplasm
D. A and B
E. B and C
E
The neuronal sodium-potassium pump:
A. pumps sodium ions into the cell.
B. pumps potassium ions out of the cell.
C. requires ATP to function.
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
C
What enables us to rule out sodium as being the main ion controlling the resting potential?
A. Its concentration inside vs. outside the neuron is not equal.
B. Its equilibrium potential is much different than the neuronal resting potential.
C. It is normally surrounded by water molecules.
D. Having a plus charge would prevent it from being permeable with regard to the neuronal membrane
E. It is too wimpy: it is only a monovalent cation
B
Paul Broca's patient who couldn't speak had a lesion in the:
A. Lower occipital lobe
B. Central parietal lobe
C. Upper temporal lobe
D. Left frontal lobe
E. Lower temporal lobe
D
What is the absolute refractory period and what causes it to occur?
The absolute refractory period is the time after an action potential during which the neuron absolutely cannot fire again. It occurs during the falling phase and a bit of the undershoot. During this period, the Na+ channels are blocked but not closed.
What causes the rising phase of the action potential in terms of ion movements?
The sodium channels begin to open and Na+ enters the cell.
What is the threshold? When is this, relative to the rest of the action potential?
The threshold is the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels. It happens at the beginning of rising phase.
What causes the falling phase of the action potential in terms of ion movements?
The potassium channels open and the K+ leaves the cell.
The most common site of origination of a neuronal action potential:
A. Dendritic spine
B. Dendritic shaft
C. Axon hillock
D. Axon collaterals
E. Axon terminal
C
Given the ionic permeabilities that exist in a neuron at rest, if the normal external potassium concentration were raised two-fold, then:
A. The equilibrium potential for potassium would become negative
B. The cell would be hyperpolarized
C. The equilibrium potential for potassium would become more positive.
D. The equilibrium potential for potassium would remain the same.
E. A and B
C
An example of a neurite:
A. Axon
B. Endoplasmic reticulum
C. Nerve terminal
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C
A
A typical value for a neuronal resting potential (inside compared to outside):
A. -650 mV
B. -65 mV
C. 0 mV
D. 65 mV
E. 650 mV
B
The first neurotransmitter to be discovered in the vertebrate nervous system:
A. Acetylcholine
B. Norepinephrine
C. Dopamine
D. Serotonin
E. Glutamate
A
Kinesin is a protein associated with:
A. Mitochondrial ATP production
B. Fusing of a synaptic vesicle to the terminal membrane
C. Reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft
D. Anterograde transport
E. The sodium/potassium neuronal pump
D
Removal of the following ion from the incubation bath would decrease the ability of GABA to generate IPSPs.
A. Sodium
B. Magnesium
C. Potassium
D. Calcium
E. Chloride
C
According to the Nernst equation, the equilibrium potential for a neuron permeable to potassium if the external concentration was 300 mM and the internal concentration was 3 mM:
A. 123 mV
B. -123 mV
C. 0 mV
D. 615 mV
E. -615 mV
A
According to the Nernst equation, the equilibrium potential for a neuron with the same concentration inside vs. outside?
A. 61.54 mV
B. -61.54 mV
C. 0 mV
D. 615 mV
E. -615 mV
C
During a neuronal action potential, what contributes to the part of the action potential in which the membrane potential is getting more negative?
A. Efflux of chloride ions
B. Shutting of the voltage-gated sodium channels
C. Opening of the voltage-gated potassium channels
D. A and B
E. B and C
E
An example of a central nervous (CNS) are that develops from the forebrain:
A. Hypothalamus
B. Cerebral cortex
C. Medulla
D. A and B
E. B and C
D
A slice through the brain that could divide the brain into left and right halves halves:
A. Coronal
B. Saggital
C. Caudal
D. Horizontal
E. Rostral
B
What serves as the best neuronal marker for GABA?
A. Tryptophan Hydroxylase
B. Choline Acetyltransferase
C. Glutamatic Acid Decarboxylase
D. Tyrosine Hydroxylase
E. None of the above
C
What serves as the best neuronal marker for Acetylcholine?
A. Tryptophan Hydroxylase
B. Choline Acetyltransferase
C. Glutamatic Acid Decarboxylase
D. Tyrosine Hydroxylase
E. None of the above
B
What serves as the best neuronal marker for Serotonin?
A. Tryptophan Hydroxylase
B. Choline Acetyltransferase
C. Glutamatic Acid Decarboxylase
D. Tyrosine Hydroxylase
E. None of the above
A
What serves as the best neuronal marker for Glutamate?
A. Tryptophan Hydroxylase
B. Choline Acetyltransferase
C. Glutamatic Acid Decarboxylase
D. Tyrosine Hydroxylase
E. None of the above
E
Of the following coverings of the brain, indicate which is the most dorsal (reached first when penetrating the skull):
A. Dura Mater
B. Subarachnoid space
C. Pia Mater
D. Arachnoid membrane
E. Subdural space
A
All of the following statements concerning brain imaging are correct except:
A. fMRI uses magnets
B. PET scans use antimatter
C. PET scans directly measure neuronal firing rates
D. PET scans use radioactive isotopes
E. fMRI can distinguish between oxygenated blood (oxyhemoglobin) and deoxygenated blood (deoxyhemoglobin).
C
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the neuronal membrane?
A. it contains a potassium channel that is open to potassium at the resting potential
B. it contains a pump that continuously pumps sodium into the neuron
C. it is made of a phospholipid bilayer
D. It contains a pump that continuously requires ATP to exchange sodium and potassium ions
E. Its ion permeability characteristics create a potential that is negative inside the neuron compared to outside the neuron
B
A pronounced loss of DA in the brain is a characteristic pathology of:
A. Multiple Sclerosis
B. Tetrodotoxin Poisoning
C. Epilepsy
D. Axoplasmic Transport Disease
E. Parkinson's Disease
E
Dephosphorylation (removal of phosphate groups) of proteins is produced by
A. Protein phosphotases
B. ATPases
C. Adenylyl Cyclases
D. Phosphodiesterases
E. Protein Kinases
A
Which of the following match-ups is correct?
A. Gray's Type I synapse: symmetric synapse differentiation
B. Gray's Type II synapse: inhibitory synapse
C. Gray's Type I synapse: inhibitory synapse
D. Gray's Type II synapse: asymmetric synapse differentiation
E. Gray's Type II synapse: excitatory synapse
B
The argument on whether the brain's neuron's are continuous or have spaces between them was carried out between:
A. Descartes and Löewi
B. Löewi and Broca
C. Cajal and Galen
D. Cajal and Descartes
E. Golgi and Cajal
E
Of the following transmitters, the one which has the greatest number of neurons using it as a transmitter in the brain:
A. Dopamine
B. Acetylcholine
C. Serotonin
D. Norepinephrine
E. GABA
E
An example of ligand-gated ion channels:
A. GABAa receptors in the brain
B. Cholinergic receptors at the heart
C. Catecholamine receptors at the heart
D. Catecholamine receptors at the brain
E. All of the above
A
Explain the significance of the EPSP.
The EPSP encourages and helps build up to the action potential by aiding depolarization.
What is immunohistochemistry?
The use of antibodies to determine the presence or lack of certain neurotransmitters.
True or false: Compared to the Golgi, the Nissl stain shows more of the neuronal anatomical components.
F
True or false: Botulinum toxin causes sketetal muscle to contract.
F
True or false: IP3 stimulates the uptake of calcium into the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
F
True or false: There are more glial cells in the brain than there are neurons.
T
True or false: Neurons associated with the dorsal (back) part of the spinal cord carry sensory information into the spinal cord.
T
True or false: Adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the conversion of cyclic AMP to AMP.
F
True or false: If a neuron uses norepinephrine as a transmitter, it will have a positive result when exposed to tagged antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase.
T
True or false: Dopamine is synthesized from norepinephrine in catecholamine neurons.
F
True or false: The sodium/potassium neuronal pump is involved in pumping potassium ions from the cell interior to the cell exterior.
F
True or false: A synapse between an axon terminal onto another nerve terminal is called an axoaxonic synapse.
T
True or false: Myelination of a neuron will increase the velocity of its action potentials.
T
True or false: Diffusion is the net movement of ions from a region of low concentration to one of high concentration.
F
True or false: The cerebellum is derived from the midbrain.
F
True or false: All catecholamine receptors are G-protein coupled.
T
True or false: Sodium and potassium are the only ions for which voltage-gated channels exist.
F
True or false: Saltatory conduction takes place in non-myelinated neurons.
F
True or false: The acetylcholine nicotinic receptor is a ligand-gated receptor.
T
True or false: The total length of time for a neuronal action potential to occur is usually 1-2 seconds.
F
An injection of what radioactively labeled material would be helpful in identifying exactly where an axon's terminal is?
Amino acids
What are the two neurohormones released by the magnocellular neurosecretory cells?
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
What brain structures develop from the forebrain?
The hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, retina, optic nerve, third ventricle, olfactory bulb, basal telencephalon, corpus callosum, cortical white matter, and internal capsule
What brain structures develop from the midbrain?
Tectum, tegmentum, and cerebral aqueduct
What brain structures develop from the hindbrain?
Cerebellum, pons, fourth ventricle, and medulla
Explain the Gate Theory
The gate theory states that mechanoreceptors and nociceptors from around the same area send signals to the same interneurons. Stimulation of wide diameter axon-ed Mechanoreceptors lessens the amount of signal from unmyelinated nociceptors that reaches the brain.
Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray mater (PAG) can produce analgesia. The administration of which before testing the effect would be the clearest way to determine if endogenous opioids are involved in this response?
A. Atropine
B. Morphine
C. Neostigmine
D. L-DOPA
E. Naloxone
E. Naloxone
The term "motor unit" refers to:
A. All of the alpha motor neurons that innervate one muscle
B. The combination of gamma neurons and muscle fibers within on muscle spindle
C. The total sensory innervation of one Golgi Tendon Organ
D. An alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
E. All of the intrafusal and extrafusal muscle fibers within a muscle
D. An alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
Indicate which of the following would have the most sensitive two-point discrimination.
A. Forearm
B. Index Finger
C. Calf of the leg
D. Back
E. Sole of the foot
B
Interaural time delay is...
the time it takes for sound coming from the right side to reach the left ear after reaching the right ear.
Neglect syndrome is... and would most likely be caused by a stroke in one side of the --- ---.
the inability of a patient to see a certain portion of reality.
Parietal cortex
Upon binding of calcium to ---, --- can no longer prevent myosin and actin from interacting in skeletal muscle.
A. Tubulin
B. Myotin
C. Troponin
D. Biocytin
E. Sarcomin
C. Troponin
The observation that only stereoisomer of morphine can produce suggests that:
A. Morphine interacts with a protein in the nervous system
B. Tolerance would develop to chronic use of morphine
C. Peptide compounds should be able to mimic morphine's analgesic action
D. Morphine can work in both the spinal cord and the brain to produce analgesia
E. All of the above
A. Morphine interacts with a protein in the nervous system
An example of a descending motor tract that is part of the lateral pathway:
A. Tectospinal
B. Vestibulospinal
C. Pontine reticulospinal
D. Corticospinal
E. Medullary reticulospinal
D. Corticospinal
The ear auditory receptors are located in the:
A. Organ of Corti
B. Otolith Organs
C. Auditory Canal
D. Semicircular canal
E. Ossicles
A. Organ of Corti
Nerve endings hat signal pain are known as:
A. Baroceptors
B. Nociceptors
C. Kinoceptors
D. Sensoceptors
E. Neuroceptors
B. Nociceptors
In humans, doing finger movements from memory activaes motor areas 4 and 6. What would occur if you just thought about the movement without actually doing it?
A. Both areas 4 and 6 are activated
B. Area 6 is activated, but area 4 is not
C. Area 4 is activated, but area 6 is not
D. Neither area 4 nor 6 is activated
B. Area 6 is activated, but area 4 is not
The largest mechanoreceptor in the skin:
A. Meissner's corpuscle
B. Ruffini's ending
C. Merkel's disk
D. Krause end bulbs
E. Pacinian Corpuscle
E. Pacinian Corpuscle
The vestibular-ocular reflex (VOP):
A. Enables you to keep moving in a straight line even with your eyes closed
B. Enables you to keep your eyes fixed on a visual target despite head movement
C. Is only present up to about age 10
D. Is deficit in people who are susceptible to motion sickness.
E. Enables you to track moving targets without moving your head.
B. Enables you to keep your eyes fixed on a visual target despite head movement
Indicate the correct order of decreasing size (largest first) of the sensory neurons.
A. C, A∂, Aß, Aa
B. C Aa, Aß, A∂
C. A∂, Aß, A∂, C
D. Aa, Aß, A∂, C
E. A∂, Aß, C, Aa
D. Aa, Aß, A∂, C
The most pronounced effect of a lateral cerebellar (cerebellum) lesion:
A. Hyperkinesia
B. Hypokinesia
C. Ataxia
D. Hyperalgesia
E. Amnesia
C. Ataxia
A logical drug choice for myasthenia gravis:
A. Inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase
B. Blocker of ACH receptors
C. Stimulator of catecholamine release
D. Inhibitor of GABA reuptake
E. Inhibitor of NMDA receptors
A. Inhibitor of aceytlcholinesterase is the best drug choice for myasthenia gravis.
Which of the following is a component of the basal ganglia?
A. Amygdala
B. Hippocampus
C. Hypothalamus
D. Motor cortex
E. Globus pallidus
E. The globus pallidus is a part of the basal ganglia
Depolarization of an auditory hair cell is produced by:
A. Efflux of Cl-
B. Influx of Na+
C. Efflux of Na+
D. Influx of K+
E. Influx of Ca++
D. Influx of K+ causes auditory hair cell depolarization.
The assay utilized for the first isolation of an endogenous mammalian brain opioid compound:
A. Analgesic (pain suppression) activity
B. Inhibition of morphine binding to an opiate receptor
C. Inhibition of smooth muscle contraction
D. Production of pupil constriction
E. Depression of blood pressure
C. Inhibition of smooth muscle contraction was the first thing used to assay endogenous opioid compounds.
The tympanic membrane (eardrum) is located in the:
A. Cochlea
B. Pinna
C. Eustachian tube
D. Middle Ear
E. Oval Window
D. The middle ear
Post-death rigor mortis of the skeletal muscles occurs because of:
A. Failure of actin and myosin to separate.
B. A burst of ATP production
C. Actin metabolism by protease enzymes
D. Depletion of free intracellular calcium
E. Closing of skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channels
A. The failure of actin and myosin to separate after death causes rigor mortis.
The oval window has a smaller surface area than the tympanic membrane, so that sound is...
amplified.
Indicate which lobe of the cortex contains most of the cortex concerned with the somatic sensory system:
A. Occipital
B. Temporal
C. Parietal
D. Frontal
C. The parietal lobe contains most of the somatosensory cortex.
A brain area exhibiting a lesion in Parkinson's Disease:
A. Frontal cortex
B. Basal ganglia
C. Hippocampus
D. Cerebellum
E. Thalamus
B. The basal ganglia exhibits a lesion in Parkinson's.
True or false: When Na+ comes in contact with a salt receptor on the tongue, it causes the closed sodium channels to open.
F
True or false: The C type sensory neuron is not myelinated.
T
True or false: Huntington's disease is characterized by hypokinesia.
F
True or false: Input from the two eyes mixes in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
F
True or false: Thermoreceptors contain Trp channels.
T
True or false: Touch and pain share the same neuronal tracts to get to the brain.
F
True or false: The response of a bipolar cell's membrane potential to light in the receptive field center is opposite to that of light in the surround.
T
True or false: The basal ganglia are part of the pyramidal motor tract.
F
True or false: Muscarinic receptor agonists are useful for treating motion sickness.
F - Muscarinic blockers, not agonists, are useful. Example: Scopolamine
True or false: Glutamate released by photoreceptors in the retina hyperpolarizes bipolar cells via AMPA receptors.
F