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67 Cards in this Set

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The capacityto make decisions independently, serve as ones own source of emotional strengh, and otherwise manage life tasks without being overdependent on other people; an important developmental task of adolescence
A gender-role orientation in which the person blends both positive masculine stereotype and positive feminine stereotyped personality traits
Androgyny shift
A psychological change that begins in mid-life, when parenting responsibilities are over, in which both men and women retain their gender-type qualities but add to them quanlities traditionally associated with the other sex, thus becoming more androgynous
empty nest
the term used to describe the family after the last child departs the house hold
the organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors that is unique to each individual
the extent and mannor in which the two parents coordinate their parenting and function as a term in rlation to their children
an orientation that emphasizes the well-being of others and includes traits of emotionally and sensitivity to others; considered femenine
an orientation toward individuals action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence,assertivness, andcompetitivness; considered masculine
catergorical self
a persons classification of the self along socially significant dimessions such as age and sex.. what is "like me" or "not like me"
genetically based patern of tendencies to respond in predictable ways, building blocks of personality such as activity level, socialbility, and emotionality
family systems theory
the family is a whole consisting of interrelated parts, each of which affects and is affected by everyt other part, and each of which contributes to the functioning of the whole
nuclear family
consists of a father, mother, and at least one child
extended family household
parents and their children live with other kin- grandparents, siblings, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews..
family life cyle theory
eight-stage sequence of changes in family compostion, roles, and relationships from the time people marry until they die. each stage has a particular set of family member who play distinctive roles
african american families
these familes tend to place for emphasis on extended famliy bonds; interact and share responsiblities for raising children
the two dimensions of parenting styles
Acceptance- Responsive and Demading-Control (Permissiveness-Restrictiveness)
Acceptance-Responsive style
parents are supportive, sensitive to the childs needs and willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet their expectations (affection, praise, encouragement)
control over decisions relys on the parent. parents set the rules and expect the children to follow them
less controlling and demanding parents. make fewer demandsm allow children automony to explore, express opinion and emotion
Parenting Styles
Authoritarion, authoritative, permissive, neglectful
restictive parenting style. high demanding-control and low acceptace-responsiveness. parents impose rules, expect strict obediance, rarley explain the rules, power and tactices and physical punishment
flexible demanding and controlling but also accepting and responsive. clear set of rules and consistently enforce them but also explain the rules, communicate and involve children in family descions.
high acceptance- responsivness but low in demanding-control. indulgent with few rules and few demands. encourage children to express feelings and impulses and rarely exet control over behavior
combine low demanding- control and low acceptance, relatively uninvolved in childs upbringing, seem to not care much, may even reject them
working class parents
tend to stress obediance and respect for authority more often restrictive and authroitarian and shows less warmth and affection
Low SES parents
economic issues result in authoritarian, inconsistent parenting limited resources in childs development
parent effect model of family
assumes taht influecnes occur in one direction, from parent to child (particularly mother to child)
child effect model
influence of the children on their parents. as children develope, parenting shifts from parent regulation to parent-child co-regulation to self regulation of child
self regulation by a more capble child. parents become less restrictive as the child matures
transactional model
parents and child influence one another reciprocally childs problems develop when the relationshiop between parent and child goes bad over time and child development results when parent-child transactions evolve in more positive direcitons
sibling rivarly
the spirt of competition, jealousy, and resentment between brothers and sisters. may be motivated to compete with each other for parents time and resources and possesions
remote grandparents
symbolic figures seen only occasionally by grand children geographically or emotionaly distand
companionate grandparents
saw the grandchildren frequently and enjoyed sharing activities with them; rarely played a parenting role
involved grandparents
take a parent-like role. often helped with child care, gave advice, played roles in grandchildrens lifes. some lived with and serves as substitue parents
the features that a society associates with or considers appropriate for men and women
biological sex
physical characteristics that define male and female
gender roles
patterns of behavior that females and males should adopt in a particular society
gender stereotypes
overgeneralied, largley inaccurate beliefs about waht males and females are like
gender segregation
favor same sex play mates around 30 to 36 months seperate boys and gils peer groups, greater level of same sex interaction
gender typing
children acquire awareness of their biological for that sex caused by the wy males and females are raised
gender similarity hypothesis
states that males and females are similar and most, but not all, psycholgical variables, men and women as well as boys and girls, are more alike than they are different
differential reinforcement
children are rewarded for sex-appropriate behavior and punished for behaviors considered appropriate for the opposite sex
observational learning
children adopt the attitues and behaviors of same sex models
gender idenity
established by age 2 or 3 when children can recognize and lable themselves as males and females
gender stability
around age 4 when children understand that gender identity is stable over time
cognitive development thoery
Kohlberg's gender role develpment, children acquire understanding of gender and engage in self- socialization gender remains constant
gender schema thoery
marin and halrerson; belifes and expectations about maels and females that influence information that children remember. allows them to classify objects, behaviors,j and roles appropriate fore each sex
Genetic male chromosomes
Genetic female chromosomes
character adaptations
changealbe ways in which people adapt
narrative ideniteis
unique and itegrative life stories that construct to give ourselves an identity and meaning to our lives
(thoughts) Our perceptions- positive, negative, realisitc, unrealistic- of our attribues and traits as a person
self esteen
(feelings) Our overall evaluation of our worth as a person bases upon the positives and negative self perceptions
our overall sense of who we are and how we fit into society
psychoanlytic theory
in-depth interviews and dream analysis
trait theory
personality scales and factor analysis
conceptualizing the self personality: five diminesion of personality
1)Openess to experience
infant temperment
genetically bases tendencies to respond in predictable ways to events
easy temperment
even tempered, typically happy, adaptable to new experiences, regular feeding habits, tollerant to frustrations
slow to warn up temperment
relatively inactive, somwhat moody, moderatly regular schedues, slow to adapt to new people and situations, responds mildly
difficult temperment
infants are active, irritalbe, irregular in their habits, react negativly (vigorously) to changes in routine, slow to adapt to new people and situations, cry frequently and loudly, often have tantrums
behavioral inhibition
tendency to bew shy, restrained, and distressd in response to unfamiliar poeple or situations
Three dimensions of temperment
1) surgency/extraversoin
2)negative affectivity
3)effortful control
tendency to actively and energetically apprach new experiences in an emotionally positive way (rather than be inhibited and withdrawn)
negative affectivity
tendency to be sad, fearful,j easily frustrated, and irritable (opposed to laid back and adaptable)
effortful control
the ability to focus and shift attention when desired, control ones behavior and plan a course of aactions and regulate or surpress ones emotions
goodness of fit
thomas and chess; child and his environment. the extent to which the childs temperment is compatible with the demand and expectations of the social world to which he must adapt.