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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cause of the greatest number of deaths annually in the United States is _____.
smoking-related diseases
Cigarette smoking is known to be a major cause of death and disability of ____, low birth weight and ____ disease.

Nicotine produces a sense of enhanced _____ and alertness, while also having a calming effect on the addicted smokers.

Nicotine in cigarette smoke raises _____ pressure and heart rate.
cancer; heart


Tars provide the ____ in cigarette smoke and a major source of its ______. Tar also causes damage to ____, tiny hairs on the linings of the respiratory tract.
_____ in cigarette smoke interferes with the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells, leading to oxygen shortages of the hearts of patients suffering from coronary artery disease.

The first disease clearly linked to lung disease was ____ cancer.

Raising cigarette _____ has been the most successful intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among ____ people.
Carbon monoxide


The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the FDA the authority to _____ tobacco products and to restrict advertising and promotion. The FDA was also given the power to require a disclosure of the _____.

Obesity, overnutrition and inactivity have been shown to raise the risk of Cancer, ____ disease and diabetes.

The percentage of Americans who are overweight has ____ over the past two decades.

____ are the number one cause of death o f people aged 1-44.


The FDA has declared that ____ is an addictive drug.

The ____ industry settled a lawsuit by the states by agreeing to pay them over $200 million.

Cigarette advertising on television was ____ in an agreement with the Federal Communications Commission.

Prevalence of smoking among _____ _______ is higher than whites.



American Indians
____ is the component of tobacco that is psychoactive and addictive.

____ is the component of tobacco smoke that provides flavor and is a major source of carcinogenicity.

The Fairness Doctrine is a Federal Communication Commission mandate that radio and TV ads for tobacco products must be _____ by public service announcements about ____.


balanced; harm
The Master Settlement Agreement is the 1998 settlement between ____ companies and state attorneys general whereby the companies paid on a multi-billion dollar payment to states, as well as agreeing on some _____ on advertising and creating the American Legacy Foundation.

The "Truth" campaign is an American legacy Foundation ad campaign against tobacco targeted at _____.

Overweight is having a BMI between ____ and 29.9.

Obese is having a BMI above ____.
tobacco; restrictions



_____ injuries are the leading cause of injury death in the United States, poisoning is the second and ____ is the third.. Most injuries are not ____.

____ is more effective than education in changing behavior.

The three E's of injury prevention are: education, _____, and engineering.

The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle safety Act set standards for new cars, such as installation of ____ ______ , laminated windshields, collapsible steering assemblies and _____ padding.
Motor vehicle; firearms; fatal



seat belts

Preventing car crashes from occurring in the first place is considered _____ prevention.

Primary prevention for motor vehicle injuries include: ___ that require annual inspection of automobile brakes,divided highways, "wrong way" signs, and laws against _____ _____.

Requirements that vehicles more effectively protect their occupants during a crash are considered _____ prevention.

Secondary prevention for motor vehicle injuries include the use of ____ and seat belts.

Tertiary prevention includes ______.

laws; drunk driving



Homicide rates in the U.S are among the _____ in the world.

One out of three American house holds possess a _____.

Substandard housing _____ the risk of house fires; homicides are ____ common in poor neighborhoods; and poor people are _____ likely to have high-risk jobs.

The leading cause of occupational injury death is ______ _____ crashes.

_____ is the number one risk factory for infant mortality.

The risk of infant mortality is higher for children of _____ mothers than of older women.

The IMR in the United States has _____ in the past two decades due to improved _____, housing and nutrition; _____; clean water and pasteurized milk; antibiotics and better _____ care and delivery.


increases; more; more

motor vehicle



declined; SES

immunization; prenatal
Genetic screening, ____ labels on alcoholic beverages and ____ acid supplements are all methods of preventing congenital abnormalities.

The most important public health intervention for preventing infant mortality is ____ care.

Rates of adolescent pregnancies have ____ since the 1950s. Births of unmarried adolescents have ____ since the 1950s.

U.S adolescent pregnancy rates are the ____ in the industrialized world.
warning; folic


declined; increased

The Injury pyramid is the representation of the fact that while fatal injuries are the ____ reliably reported, many more nonfatal injuries lead to _____ and emergency room visits and even more may go untreated.

The NHTSA is the federal agency that sets safety standards for new ____, collects data on motor vehicle ____, and conducts research on motor vehicle ____.

OSHA is the federal agency that sets standards on _____ safety, inspects wok places, and imposes _____ for workplace hazards
most; hospitalizations

cars; death; safety

occupational; penalties
The ______ is the number of deaths within the first year of life for every 1,000 live births.

_____ is birth-weight less than 2500 grams and is associated with preterm birth; very low birth-weight is less than _____ grams.

____ is unexpected death of an infant for reasons not understood.
Infant Mortality Rate

Low birth-weight; 1500

Environmental Health is the responsibility of the _____.

A major role of the federal government in environmental health is to ____ hazards in the environment to set safety standards that must be met by industry and by state and local governments to protect people from these hazards.

Radiation is an environmental health hazard that people tend to worry about only when it is ____ produced.

Prolonged exposure to radon gas is potentially a cause of ____ cancer.

UV radiation from the sun is a significant cause of ____ cancer and melanoma.




____ causes neurological damage. It enters the environment through ___-burning

Lead is harmful to the brain and ____ system of children.

Long-term exposure to arsenic causes diabetes and ____.
Mercury; coal


Workers are considered to be guinea pigs because their occupational exposures may lead to ____ of toxic and carcinogenic effects, they tend to be exposed to _____ amounts of harmful substances than the general population. They also tend to be the first to suffer the _____ of harmful substances.


Factory Farms are a source of ____. They deal with waste by creating ____ in which the liquids are allowed to evaporate from which they are sprayed on fields. After heavy rains, lagoons may _____ and spill into the rivers and lakes.

The ____, FDA and ____ are responsible for setting standards from environmental hazards.



The criteria air pollutants include: particulate matter, ____ dioxide; carbon _____, nitrogen oxides, ozone and ____.

Ozone is used as a general measure of ____ pollution. It can be produced by the action of ____ and it is also very irritating to the _____ system.

The United States has employed mandates for reducing _____ emissions, marketing of emission ____, and mandates for industries to ____ the kinds and amounts of pollutants they discharge.

____ converters, smoke-stack scrubbers, and ___-free gas have all contributed to progress in reducing air pollution.
sulfur; monoxide; lead

air; sunlight; respiratory

automobile; allowances; report

catalytic; lead
Sources of indoor pollution include tobacco smoke, ___ gas and _____.

_____ dioxide are the gases that contribute most to global warming.


Coliform count is commonly used as an _____ of drinking water contamination. Chlorination of water can produce _____ contaminants. The incidence of waterborne diseases is probably ____ than reported.


PCBs are a widespread chemical contaminant worldwide that is no longer _____ but lingers in the environment; may have effects on the ____ and endocrine system and is a probable human carcinogen.

POPs are persistent organic pollutants that are widespread in the environment; many are ___ toxic; includes PCBs.

Neurotoxins are chemicals that harm the _____ system.

Factory Farms is an approach to farming that crowd thousands of animals into confined spaces where they can be fed and tended to by _____ systems; they produce millions of tons of manure that ____ the environment, but are poorly _____ because of political pressures by the major corporations.
manufacture; immune



automated; pollute; regulated
Particulate matter is the most _____ form of air pollution; smoke, soot, ash.

Ozone is a highly reactive form of ____.

The Ozone layer is ozone in the ____ atmosphere that filters out harmful UV radiation.

CFCs are man made chemicals used in refrigerant and spray cans; these propellants migrate to the ____ atmosphere and break down ____.

Radon is a radioactive gas that causes _____ cancer in uranium miners; may seep into homes from ____ and rocks.

Acid rain is produced by interaction of water with ____ dioxide and nitrogen dioxide; damages forests, reduces crop yields, corrodes surfaces of buildings and statues.

The Greenhouse effect is the effect of ____ dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere that trap sunlight near the earth's _____ and contributes to global warming.



upper; ozone

lung; soil


carbon; surface
Point source pollution is pollution caused by well defined discharges from ______ sewage and industrial sources.

Non-point source solution is pollution cause by storm water ____ from farm land, construction sites and ____ streets.

Potable water is water that is safe for human _____.

runoff; urban

High population density is a cause of ____ pollution.

The ____ government is ultimately responsible for environmental health because pollution can spread widely, and those harmed by it are often not those that ____ it.

Most human cancer is caused by _____ in the environment.

federal; produce

The amount of lead has been _____ since the 1980s.

The following processes are commonly used in waste water treatment: _____ by gravity, bacterial digestion and aeration.

Federal regulation of water quality is necessary because sources of pollution and the affected communities are often under _____ political jurisdiction.


Of the 210 million tons of municipal solid waste disposed of annually, ____ constitutes the greatest percentage by weight.

Composting, _____ and recycling are methods of volume reduction.

Medicaid, ____ health centers and local health department clinics were created to provide medical care for the ____.

State governments license providers of medical care to ensure _____ of care for patients.

Patients who need liver transplants may die _____ for a liver to become available.

The American political system has not been able to deal fairly with ____ in medical resources.

The _____ _____ view of resource allocations is that public funds should buy the most health for the most people.
community; poor




public health
Part ____ of the Medicare program covers hospital care.

Public Health considers ____ in access to care be an important ethical issue. Social ethics examines the _____ of resources for the entire medical system. Cost is not usually considered in decisions about providing care for severely ____-damaged adults or very low _____ infants.



brain; birth-weight
The United States has higher medical costs than other developed nations due to more use of medical _____, higher administrative costs and ____ insurance. Almost half of medical care costs in the U.S is paid by _____.

Managed care limits parents' choice of ____, provides incentives to keep patients healthy and has helped ____ medical costs.
technology; malpractice


doctors; control
Most people over 65 have access to medical care because of _____. The medicare program is paid for by ____ on employers and employees. The Medicare program pays out ____ than it collects in taxes and premiums.

Doctors are usually ____ that their use of certain medical procedures is higher or lower than the average.

The gross domestic product is most closely correlated with the ____ of a population. The AHRQ is a federal agency that supports ____ _____ research.
Medicare; taxes

more; unaware


medical services
For people who smoke all their lives, quitting after age 65 does not ____ health.

Alzheimer's disease is affected by _____ factors and thus may be preventable.

Most patients on Medicare are enrolled in _____ care plans.


A diagnosis related group (DRG) is an attempt to control medical ____ by setting a flat fee for each hospital stay based on the illness category of the patient.

A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a form of ____ care in which an organization acts as both insurer and _____ of care; in return for a fixed fee, the HMO agrees to provide all needed care.

Managed care is a system of medical insurance which seeks to control costs and limit ______ care.

managed; provider

_____ (PPO) is a form of managed care in which patients are required to seek care from providers who have agreed to provide services at ____ rates.

Rationing is the process of allocating goods in the face of _____; a system limiting the provision of medical care by _____ costs and quality.
Preferred Provider Organization; lower

Small area analysis is an ____ of variations in medical practice patterns by geographical area.

Health Services Research is research on the effectiveness, _____ and equity of medical care.

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a federal agency that supports ____ on medical care.

The National Committee for Quality Assurance is an accrediting agency for _____ care plans.



The compression of mortality is a pattern of ____ in which deaths are increasingly concentrated in a relatively short age range at or about the biological limit of ___ ____.

Compression of morbidity is the pattern of aging in which most people are _____ most of their lives.
aging; life span

Sanitary landfills are the most common method of ____ waste disposal meet standards set by the ______.It is important that they have ____ for liquids and ____ for gases.

Recycling helps ease the demand for ____ space. Paper cannot be recycled _____ and thus eventually must be put into _____. Laws requiring refundable bottle deposits provide an effective way of encouraging _____
municipal; RCRA
drains; vents