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18 Cards in this Set

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Heart Tissues (from outer to inner)

Pericardium - surrounds heart



Epicardium - inner layer of pericardium



Myocardium - Heart muscle



Endocardium - smooth lining of inner surface and cavities of heart

Heart Chambers (flow of blood)

Right Atrium --> Right Ventricle --> Left Atrium --> Left Ventricle

Right Atrium

Receives de-oxygenated blood from systemic circulation

Right Ventricle

Receives blood from RA and pumps blood to lungs for oxygenation

Left Atrium

Receives oxygenated blood from lungs and pulmonary veins

Left Ventricle

Receives blood from LA and pumps blood via the aorta throughout the systemic circulation

Atrioventricular Valves (Tricuspid & Bicuspid)

Prevents backflow of blood into the atria.


Tricuspid is right heart valve


Bicuspid is left heart valve

Semilunar Valves

Prevents backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary arteries into ventricles


Pulmonary prevents right backflow


Aortic prevents left backflow

Heart Conduction (flow of electral impulses)

Sinoatrial node in RA --> Atrioventricular node in LA --> Purkinji fibers in RV --> myocardial fibers in LV

Arteries

Transport oxygenated blood from the heart.



Thicker walls with smooth muscle tissue

Red in appearance

Veins

Transport de-oxygenated blood from peripheral tissues to the heart



One-way valve to prevent backflow

Blue in appearance

Sympathetic Stimulation

Fight or flight: increases body's cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic system functions

Beta-blockers are drugs used to decrease sympathetic activity

Hyperkalemia

Increased potassium



Effects on heart:


Tachycardia (>100 bpm)


Potential cardiac arrest

Hypokalemia

Decreased potassium



Effects on heart:


Hypotension


Arrhythmias may progress to ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib)

Hypercalcemia

Increased calcium



Effects on heart:


Hypertension


Signs of heart block


Cardiac arrest

Hypocalcemia

Decreased calcium



Effects on heart:


Arrhythmias


Hypotension

Hypernatremia

Increased sodium



Effects on heart:


Hypertension


Tachycardia


Pitting edema


Excessive weight gain

Hyponatremia

Decreased salt



Effects on heart:


Hypotension


Tachycardia


Peripheral resistance