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56 Cards in this Set

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What category are hot packs?
Thermal
What category are cold packs?
Thermal
What category is Ultrasound?
Thermal
Nonthermal
Mechanincal
What category is diathermy?
Thermal Electromagnetic
What category is traction?
Mechanical
What category is whirlpool?
Mechanical
Thermal
What category E-stim?
Electromagnetic
What category is laser/light?
Electromagnetic
What is a modality which superficially increases tissue temperature?
Hot Pack
What is a modality which superficially decreases tissue temurature?
Cold Pack
What uses a material to contract/expand at the same frequencyat which the AC current changes polarity(>20KHtz) in order to produce inaudible sound waves which vibrate the tissues?
US
What is a magnetic field that inductively occilates charged particles which produce friction and heat?
Diathermy
What is mechanical force applied to the body to separate joint surfaces and elongate tissue?
Traction
What is a modality which uses warm or cool water?
Whirlpool
What is used to stimulate innervated muscle tissue, is used for healing and pain, and can have acupuncture like affects?
E-stim
What has electromagnetic fields that vary over time which are perpendicular to each other?
Laser
What affects does heat have?
Hemodynamic Effects: vasodilation Neuromuscular Effects: changes in nerve conduction velocity and firing, increase pain threshold, changes in muscle strength
Metabolic Effects: increase metabolic rate
Altered Tissue Exensibility: increase collagen extensibility
What affects does cold have?
Hemodynamic Effects: vasoconstriction, CIVD(cold induced vasodilation)
Neuromuscular Effects: decreased nerve conduction velocity, increase pain threshold, altered muscle strength, decrease spasticity
Metabolic Effects: decrease metabolic rate
What affects does US have?
Thermal Effects: accelerate metabolic rate, reduce pain, and muscle spasm, alter nerve conduction, increase circulation
Non Thermal Effects: cavitation, microstreaming, acoustic streaming, increase intracellular calcium levels, increase skin and cell membrane permeability, increase mast cell degranulation, release histamine, promote macrophage response, protein synthesis by fibroblast, increase nitric oxide synthesis, proteoglycan synthesis
What affects does diathermy have?
Thermal Effects: vasodilation, increase nerve conduction, elevation of pain threshold, alteration of muscle strength, acceleration of somatic activity, increases soft tissue extensibility
Non-Thermal Effects: increase microvascular profusion, increase circulation, increase tissue oxygenation nutrient availability, phagocytosis, stimulates ATP and Protein synthesis
What affects does traction have?
Joint distraction, reduce disc protrusion, soft tissue stretching, muscle relaxation, joint mobilization
What affects does whirlpool have?
Cleansing effects: pressure to remove debris, dissolve anti-microbials
Musculoskeletal Effects: decreased weight bearing, strengthening, effects on bone density loss, less fat loss
Cardiovascular effects: increase venous circulation, increase cardiac volume, increase cardiac output, decreased heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and VO2 response to exercise
Respiratory Effects: decreased vital capacity, increased breathing, decreased asthma
Renal Effects: diuresis, increased sodium potassium excretion
Psychological Effects: relaxing
What affects does E-stim have?
nerve depolarization
muscle depolarization
ionic effects
pain modulation
tissue healing
What affects does laser have?
Thermal – same as hot pack
Nonthermal (UV and pusles diathermy) stimulates ATP and RNA production, alter synthesis of cytokines, effects calcium channels, intercellular communication, collagen production, modulate inflammation, inhibit bacterial growth, vasodilation, alter nerve conduction and regeneration
At what healing stage would you use hot pack?
Proliferative
Remodeling
At what healing stage would you use cold pack?
Inflammation
At what healing stage would you use US?
Proliferation
Remodeling
At what healing stage would you use diathermy?
Proliferative
Remodeling
At what healing stage would you use traction?
All
At what healing stage would you use whirlpool?
All
At what healing stage would you use E-stim?
All
At what healing stage would you use laser?
All
At what pain state would you use heat?
Abnormal
Referred
At what pain state would you use cold packs?
Acute
What what pain state would you use US?
Persistent
Abnormal
What what pain state would you use diathermy?
All
What what pain state would you use traction?
Persistent
Abnormal
What what pain state would you use whirlpool?
All
What what pain state would you use E-stim?
All
What what pain state would you use laser?
Acute
Persistent
What are contraindications of heat packs?
1. Recent or potential hemmorage
2. Thrombophlebitus
3. Impaired sensation/mentation
4. Malignant Tumor
5. IR radiation to eyes
What are contraindications of cold packs?
1. Cold hypersensitivity
2. Cold intolerance
3. Cryglobulinemia
4. Paroxysma cold hemoglobenurea
5. Raynods disease
6. Over regenerating peripheral nerve
7. Over area with circulatory compromise or peripheralvascular disease
What are contraindications of US?
1. Malignant tumor
2. Pregnancy
3. CNS tissue
4. Joint cement
5. Plastic component
6. Pace makers
7. Thrombophlebitus
8. Eyes
9. Repro
What are contraindications of diathermy?
ALL
1. Implanted or transutaneus neurostimulators (IE pacemakers)
2. Prego
Thermal
1. Metal implants
2. Malignancy
3. Eyes
4. Testes
5. Growing epiphysis
Non-Thermal
1. Deep tissue such as internal organs
2. Substitute for conventional therapy for edema and pain
3. Pacemakers, electronic devices or metal implants
What are contraindications of traction?
1. Where motion is contraindicated
2. Acute injury or inflammation
3. Joint hypermobility/instability
4. Peripheralization of symtoms with traction
5. Uncontrolled hypertension
What are contraindications of whirlpool?
Local Immersion
1. Aceration around a wound
2. Bleeding
Full body immersion
1. Cardiac instability
2. Infectous condition
3. Bowel incontinence
4. Severe epilepsy
5. Suicidal patiants
What are contraindications of E-stim?
1. Demand cardiac pacemaker or arrhythmias
2. Placement of electrode over coratid sinus
3. Area with venous insuffiency or thrombosis, thrombophlebitus
4. Pregnancy:over or around low back or stomach
What are contraindications of laser?
1. Direct irradiation of the eyes
2. Malignancy
3. Within 4-6 months after radial therapy
4. Over hemoraging regions
5. Over thyroid or other endocrine glands
What is current evidence of heat packs?
Unknown clinical implications and effects of heat that has on neuromuscular effects; beyond acute phase, heat should be the first intervention.
What is current evidence of cold packs?
Clinicians agree that in acute phases following trauma cold should be the modality of choice.
What is current evidence of US?
Evidence shows that it does not break up scar tissue.

Thermal has shown to not be as beneficial as non-thermal with thermal having more of a placebo effect.
What is current evidence of diathermy?
???
What is current evidence of traction?
More research needs to be done on effects of HNP

More effective than infrared, corset, and bed rest, ot packs and rest, hot pack, massage and mobilization and bed rest. No difference b/w traction and sham, no treatment, or placebo as a single tx.
What is current evidence of whirlpool?
???
What is current evidence of laser?
The most superficial therapeutic effect but little testing has been done and few confirmations have been made
What is current evidence of E-stim?
1. Most do not recommend stimulation of contractions with DC current.
2. NMES is effective in gait but controversial on improving gait.
3. There is evidence on E-stim that it reduces micro vessel leakage which reduces edema
4. Not good evidence for long term effect of dennervated muscle