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41 Cards in this Set

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Provide 2 examples of how genetic engineering has helped neuroscientists understand more about the role of genes receptors and peptides

Creating knockout and knockin mice-altering genes and expression of proteins (lacking or altering a protein) so behaviour can be observed

transgenic mice- substituting one gene for another (Moving human genes into mice to test)

Cloning- mutant animals, genetic material can be inserted into cells that don't usually have that protein

Define the therapeutic index and describe how it is calculated and why it is important

The therapeutic index is calculated by using the formula TI=TD50/ED50
TI represents represents btherapeutic index,

TD50 represents the toxic or lethal dose in 50% of users

ED50 is the effective dose in 50% of all users

Calculating the TI is important to find the balance between effectiveness of the drug & overdose toxicity level so it can be given at safe doses, It can also be used to find out if the drug is effective without toxic doses eg-morphine

Name and briefly describe the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex & their functions


1.Parietal Lobe- receives the information sent by sense of touch such as pain and temperature

2. Occipital Lobe- receives information from the thalamus about visual information

3. Frontal Lobe- responsible for movement and planning

4. Temporal Lobe- Receives info from your sense of hearing

Explain what is meant by face, predictive and construct validity. Which is the most important for the use of clinically useful medications

-Face validity- the relationship between a testing procedure done on animals and its direct correlation to human test results

-Predictive validity- a measure of how closely the results from animal tests predict useful effects in humans

-Construct validity- term that represents the extent to which the animal measurement tool actually measures human characteristic of interest

Predictive validity is most important as side effects and therapeutic effects in animal testing should predict similar results in human testing or there isn't much point to animal testing

Describe 3 factors that can control neurotransmitter release

-Rate of cell firing-if a neuron is rapidly firing action potentials it will release more transmitter

-presence of autoreceptor on axon terminals or cell bodies and dendrites

-axon terminals may have receptors (heteroreceptors) may enhance or reduce amount of transmitter beings released

Compare and contrast competitive and non competitive agonists

Competitive antagonists binds to a receptor but has little efficacy. It reduces the effect of an agonist as they compete for receptor sites

Non-competitive agonists reduce the effect of an agonist but don't compete at a receptor site. Drug may bind to inactive part of receptor, disturb the cell membrane or interrupt cellular responses

Distinguish between shot term exciototoxic effects of glutamate and delayed type of cell death called apoptosis

Excititoxic effects caused by glutamate can happen from injecting contaminated sea animals containing domoic acid. this can cause headaches and dizziness . Glutamate can cause depolarization of neurons for an extended period of time which causes their death by necrosis. Necrosis occurs when a cell burst due to swelling

Apoptosis occurs when a cell nucleus is disrupted and breaks down. This is more delayed and natural than necrosis

Name the major serotonin cell clusters in the brain stem and describe their projection pathways

Almost all serotonergic neurons in the CNS are found along the midline of the brain stem

Raphe Nuclei is a large cell cluster

Dorsal raphe nuceus & median raphe nuclus are located in the caudal midbrain & rostral pons. These serotonergic fibers send messages to the neocortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system structures

Describe the location and characteristics of nicotinic receptors

name 1 drug that acts as an agonist and one as an antagonist at these receptors

Concentrated on muscle cells at neuromuscular junctions on ganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems and on neurons in the brain

They are ionic

ACh binds to the receptor, the channel opens rapidly and socium and calcium ions enter the neuron or muscle. Made of 5 proteins called subunits. Mecamylamine is an antagonist

Nicotine is an agonist

Compare and contrast the function of autoreceptors and transporters

autoreceptors are neuronal receptors in a cell that are specific for the same neurotransmitter released by that cell. They typically inhibit further neurotransmitter release

transporters are specific proteins in the cell membrane that transport molecules into and out of the cell (proteins that remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft following their release)

Explain how the GABA B receptor is structurally and functionally different than the GABA A receptor

-GABA A receptor is ionotropic

it permits Cl- ions to move across the membrane from outside to inside. Contains 5 subunits

-GABA B is metabatropic . exerts a inhibitory effect on the post synaptic cell. Drugs that are agonists at GABA A dont effect GABA B

Describe the components of the cyclical pattern of pathological drug use and how it can lead to addiction. Be specific to how the DSM-5 criteria fit in this model

Repeated drug use leads to drug tolerance, which requires ore of the drug to reach the same high or to return to regular function.

Drug addiction can result in physical dependence which in turn has withdrawal symptoms which are very unpleasant. This makes drug abstinence more difficult.

The DSM5 classifies addictions as substance use disorder. A person has to be physically dependent on a drug to fit in this category. Substance Abuse refers to abusing the drug and not using it as prescribed but may not lead to dependence. For example people who binge drink alcohol are abusing the substance but may not be dependent.
To be considered dependent the person using the drugs must also be using drugs in spite of other areas in their life. Example: it may get in the way of them working, financial goals, destroying a marriage etc

Describe 3 procedures researches can use to produce relapse to drug-seeking behavior in animal models

-Drug-priming- by giving the animal the drug they can relapse

-continued stress such as foot shocks

and by

-cues that were conditioned with drug use

Describe the ways males and females differ with regard to the effects of alcohol

Males can consume more alcohol than women typically, their bodies metabolize it more efficently. Dopamine is released with alcohol use and more dopamine is released in males with use. They are also more likely to drink more heavily. Males are more likely to become alcoholics than women are , this is thought to be because of the increased dopamine released (reward system) but the women who do become alcoholics have a higher death rate and are more likely to have side effects such as liver damage. Women who drink heavily are also deficient in thiamine.

Identify and characterize the locaion and functions of the four different types of opiate receptors

The four opiod receptor subtypes are mu, dealta, kappa, and NOP-R

Mu receptors are contained in the brain and spine which support the anesthesia effect of opiods (affecting the CNS)

Delat receptors are found in the forebrain-they effect reinforcement and cognitive function

Kappa receptors are found in the brain in the hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, and striatum-they can effect pain perception and neuroendocrine function

NOP-R receptors and contained in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. NOP-R effects motor function and analgesia

Describe the serious physical consequences that chronic or high dose cocaine use can have on various systems of the body. What have imaging and postmortem studies shown about the effect of heavy cocaine use

Chronic cocaine use can lead to sensitization which can lead to overdoses with smaller amounts of cocaine. Can impair attention memory and motor function.

Cocaine can also cause tears in the nasal passages when snorted and used chronically.

Chronic cocaine use can lead to depression or anxiety and can lead to addiction as well. PET images show that cocaine users have lower reuptake of dopamine.

Describe two findings that counter the idea that dopamine is a "pleasure neurotransmitter"

In a test regarding cocaine effects, a reduced amount of DA had limited effect on cocaine's ability to be euphoric. This and other examples regarding DA have proven that DA does not effect the pharmacolgical rewards.

Also rodent studies have shows that facial responses to a sweet taste can be enhanced by opioids, cannabinoids and bezodiazapine, but not from dopamine. Other sites have been questioned as the reward site such as NAcc (nucleus accumbens) and the ventral palladium

Describe 3 ways animal models can make important contributions to alcohol research

-Because research animals and maintained and controlled in healthy environments so some variables that humans experience are eliminated-poor nutrition, liver damage, drugs etc.

-Animals allow us to use methods that are not appropriate for humans such as chronic consumption, prenatal consumption and withdrawal. We are able to use invasive procedures

-Genetic manipulation is possible eg- selective breeding of heavy drinkers, sensitivity to alcohol, or use knockout mice to evaluate the role of one protein

What role do NMDA receptors play in opiate dependence and withdrawal? Cite evidence for your answer

NMDA (glutamate receptor) receptors prevent morphine dependence. Increased NMDA activity increases calcium entrywhich stimulates nitric oxide synthase which contributes to tolerance. NO synthase inhibitors reduce morpine tolerance and dependence. NMDA antagonist administered along with morephine will reduce dependence

What types of pain is being modulated at supraspinal levels? Identify the brain areas that are involved in opiate modulation of pain at supraspinal level?

Supraspinal (above the spinal cord) locations include the limbic structure, thalamus, and medial thalamus, These areas may be responsible for the emotional component of pain as well as for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. Opitaes modulate pain at the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, thalamus, and sensory pain scores. Increased U opiod activity was found in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex thalamus, and nucleus accumbens

List several members of the amphetamine family of drug. What do they have in common? Identify two such compounds that occur in nature. How have the amphetamines been used to treat diseases and enhance daily functioning prior to being restricted by the government?

Cocaine, amphetamines

increase alertness, heighten arousal , cause behavioral; excitement

-Cocaine is found in nature in the cocoa shrub. Freud used cocaine to remedy lacoholism, morephine addiction, depression, digestive disorders etc, tooth drops and even cocoa cola.

-amphetamines are synthetic, dexdrine, methamphetamine, mdma,

ephedrine is a natural psychomotor stimulant from the plant ephedra vulgaris. resuces appetite and increases energy, used as a weight loss pill

Describe the composition of a typical cigarette and explain how the psychoactive component is delivered to the body and brain. Where in the brain does nicotine exert its primary effects

a cigarette contains tobacco from the tobacco leaves and many other additives. Nicotine is contained in the tobacco leaves which is the additive and psychoactive component of smoking. The cigarette is burned at one end which vaporizes the nicotine which the person then inhales. The nicotine is breathed into the lungs attached one particles of tar. Once absorbed into the lungs the nicotine enters the blood stream and travels to the brain. The receptors of nicotine are located mostly in the where in the CNS

Describe the neural mechanisms that underlie both the reinforcing and aversion aspects of cannabinoid administration

The reinforcement properties of cannabinoid administration can include feelings of intoxication and relaxation. Users can feel euphoric, relaxed and have an increased appetite. If enough THC is administered hallucinations can appear to the user. A user may experience increased laughter and happiness and a sense of peace. Increased blood flow and increased heart rate add to the feelings of being intoxicated. These feelings are brought on by cannabinoid receptors in the brain. The cannabinoid receptors may inhibit neurotransmitters such as GABA, Serotonin, Dopamine and norepinephrine. Endocabbininoids act on pain perception and the rewarding role of eating.
Adversely cannabinoids disrupt memory and learning and can cause paranoia

Identify two pharmacological treatment approaches and two non-drug treatment approaches for addressing he problems of cannabis dependence. Why are most of these therapies not very successful

Medications to treat marijuana dependence include antidepressants, mood stabilizers and lithium. Oral THC is also used which reduces withdrawal symptoms.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and relapse prevention training is used to help kick marijuana dependence . A reward system may be helpful put i place for abstaining from THC

Most users are at high risk of relapse. Relapse is the result of cravings, withdrawal symptoms and using the drug as a coping mechanism. Withdrawal can result in less DA firing and increased stress hormones

Distinguish between PCP and ketamine in terms of their pharmaceutical development, safety and effects. Are these drugs used recreationally?

PCP is used less recreationally than ketamine. Ketamine is used in the rave scene. Both are considered anesthetics

People using PCP reported feeling dissociation drowsiness and loneliness, which is partly why it is used less as a street drug.

Ketamine is also dissociative but can be seen as a spiritual experience it is less potent than PCP

In studies Ketamine was found to be more reinforcing to those who used it. It can also have therapeutic uses for depression and pain.

Continuous ketamine use can result in an impairment of cognitive functions and compulsive use and can result in cell death in the brain

How is GHB typically consumed? Explain how the effects of GHB have led to its use as a "date rape drug" Name two other drugs that are also used in this manner. What can be done to protect against this type of threat

GHB results in CNS depressant effects. Its effects are like alcohol intoxication. It is used as a date rape drug as the user can go uncoscious and experience amnesia. People witnessing a person drugged with GHB may assume they are just intoxicated. GHB is odorless, colorless, it is a powder but can be sold as a liquid. The colorless odorless liquid is almost impossible to detect when slipped into someones drink.

Another drug used as date rape are rohyphnol (roofies) which is a benzodiazapine. Ketamine is also used.

To protect against date rape rohyphnol have been changed from a colorless liquid to a pill that turns blue when dissolved. There are ways developed to test ones drink to make sure it isnt drugged. There are coasters and strips that change color when your drink contains GHB or ketamine. This does not work for rohyphnol. In the news lately some college students even developed a nail polish you can wear that wil change color when exposed to these drugs as well

Identify the biphasic effect of caffeine observed in animals. What effects do low to moderate doses of caffeine have on humans? what effects do high doses have?

Biphasic ( having two phases). In animals at low doses it has stimulant effects, at high doses animals actually show reduced activity. At high doses humans do not show behavioral depression like rodents but feel feelings of tension and anxiety. At low doses humans report feeling positive, well being and energy and vigor

Identify the known effects of chronic cannabis use on health. what areas need to be researched further?

there has been no marijuana related overdoses, possibility of lung damage is always a concern, the smoke contains irritants and carcinogens, tar from cannabis contains higher doses of some carcinogens. More tar per marijuana than per cigarette smoke,

regular use is associated with respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough, wheezing and bronchitis. Marijuana users have shown cellular abnormalities that are considered precancerous though researchers have no established a link between marijuana and lung cancer. Cannabinoids repress immune function and impair resistence to bacterial and viral infections.

Possibly interferes with reproductive system, but that needs more research THC represses LH and testosterone

Describe the typical stages of an LSD "trip"including onset and duration. How is DMT different from LSD in terms of time course of action?

4 phases

1-onset 2-plateau 3-peak 4- come-down

Trip onset starts with visual effects, intensification of color, patterns. The next two hours is the plateau time slows down and visual effects become more pronounced. the peak phase starts at hour 3 the user feels they are in another world with time suspended. bizarre and distorted images show. crossing over of sensations (feeling colors) then the come-down. LSD typically lasts 6-12 hours, DMT lasts within an hour

Describe the ways in which the inhalants are similar to alcohol. Include information about their acute and chronic effects, mechanism of action, and impact on fetal development

Inhalant intoxication is similar to alcohol intoxication. The user experiences euphoria, stimulation, dis-inhibition and is followed by drowsiness and light headedness. Heavy exposure causes slurred speech, poor coordination and lethargy (like alcohol) inhalants are rapidly absorbed into the blood stream. They are a CNS depressant like alcohol and effect GABA. Babies born of mothers abusing solvents have abnormalities similar to FASD

Discuss the literature and case studies have to say about the likelihood of anabolic steroids causing aggression and "roid rage"

is the case of mr.X typical or not

Case studies have found that agitation, irritability, and aggression are higher incidence amoung steroid users. This increases with higher doses. . Violent outbursts are less common but there is statistically significant behavior between steroid use and aggression. Mr X started as a nice man and began to have mood swings with steroid use . He started having manic episodes. Mr. X then killed a hitchhiker. Once off steroids he reverted to normal though this is a rare case and Mr.X may have been particularly susceptible to this violece

Explain how organophosphate insecticides produce cholinergic syndrome and how this leads to opposite effects (bradycardia and tachycardia)

Organophosphate insecticides are absorbed into the body and metabolized. This inactivates AChE and causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses causing cholinergic syndrome.

inhibition of AChe characterizes muscle weakness. this can lead to bradycardia. Some organophosphates inhibit neuropathy target esterase which effects the bodies ability to maintain homeostasis which could result in either bradycardia or tachycardia as the body can not balance itself.

Explain how survival can be both important and maladaptive for survival. In your answer describe the three-component model of anxiety

3 component model of anxiety effects body effects, bahviour effects and thoughts

Body effects- anxiety is needed as it can induce the flight or fight. Anxiety can warn us about dangerous situations or actions as an act of survival and can give us more energy to take action. However, if the body is in a constant state of anxiety it begins to wear the body down and not work properly. If we suffer from an anxiety disorder and are in a constant state of anxiety things like sleep and relaxation become effected. This may affect your ability to focus on the task but on the anxiety itself. The flight or fight response may be activated in non survival situations (example; taking an exam). As your body is in fight or flight mode it is not working properly on things like digestion, which is slowed during the survival response.

Behavior effects- also anxiety can motivate us. For example, if you are anxious about a test you have, you are more likely to study. However constant states of anxiety or generalized anxiety that is not needed for survival is maladaptive Kids with anxiety may behave maladaptively by dropping out of school or abusing drugs to release that anxiety.

Thoughts- worrying doubts and fears can motivate us to try harder and be more prepared for the things that make us anxious, but too much of those thoughts will interfere with the event or project, or may cause us to avoid that thing all together

Compare the acute and chronic effects of antidepressant drugs on 5-HT synapse in order to explain why therapeutic efficacy takes several weeks to become evident

Antidepressants increase 5-HT by blocking the reuptake causing more to be in the synapse.

Acute administration of anti-depressants block the reuptake of 5-HT but the 5-HT autoreceptors slow the firing rate and reduce 5-HT synthesis, cancelling each other out

Therapeutic effects take longer because it takes awhile for tolerance to develop, reducing the action of the autoreceptor. When the autoreceptor gains tolerance it is down regulated and there is more 5-HT in the synapse. Both inhibiting reuptake and the down regulation together result in more 5-HT

Explain the current thinking of the biopsychosocial etiology of schizophrenia, including the early, latent and late stages

There are biological, psychological and social influences to schizophrenia.

Biologically there are genetic predispositions to schizophrenia. schizophrenia ca occur in families and the closer that person is to you (mother, father, sibling) the risk goes up. Loci on dozens of chromosomes link schizophrenia to genes/

Functional abnormalities such as increased cerebral blood flow to the frontal cortex. The frontal cortex is less active in schizophrenics.

Environmental factors play a part as well, and can trigger the disease with stress or trauma.

Explain why the nature of the disorder makes MS so unpredictable and so varied from patient to patient

Autoimmune disorder attacks the brain. The disease varies from how quickly it progresses, some patients may experience a relapse in the disease. As the disease is attacking brain cells, the symptoms are a result from those effected brain areas. Symptoms may vary because the disease may be affecting different parts of the brain at different times. The symptoms may also vary and hard to predict because the disease varies on how quickly in progresses in each individual.

For example, symptoms such as coordination problems are a result of that area being attacked, wheras in another patient it may be attacking a different area of the brain resulting in different symptoms. The symptoms can also effect other parts of the body and create secondary systems such as

What advantages do animals have with regard to the study of neurotoxicants what information can be gained from them? Describe the findings for animals studies investigating 3 of the neurotoxicants discussed

Pyrethrin & Pyrethoid- in rodents induce aggressive behavior, fine tremor is noticed before coma and death. other rodents profuse salivation, startle response, abnormal movement, writhing, seizures and death. This information is gainful as neurotoxicant poisoning is rare in humans and we can study prenatal poisoning

Organophosphates-prenatal exposure in rats the effects were seen in adolescents and adulthood apoptosis has been identified. this is relevant to humans

Bisphenal A- animal studies have show post and neonatal effects. such as increased anxiety, cognitive defects, changes in DA and NMDA systems

Animal stuies are easier because their birthing process does not take as long as humans so we can study how the neurotoxicants effect them as they are born and age

Describe the nature of the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Why is OCD considered a movement disorder? Provide the neurobiological model of OCD

Obsessions are recurring persistent troublesome thoughts of contamination, violence, sex or religion. compulsions are repetitive rituals thought to relieve anxiety from the obsessions.

Neurobiologically OCD includes abnormalities in the neural loop connecting the basal ganglia, frontal lobe, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex. OCD shows differences in caudate and area that controls sequences and behaviours. Distinct patterns of glucose metabolism in the basal ganglia is correlated with severity of symptoms. Frontal lobes modulate planning regulating and controlling, dysfunction could be responsible. SSRI's may decrease OCD

Identify the two older classes of medications used to treat major depression. Describe their mechanism of action at the synapse and their major side effects?

Monoamines and Tricyclics. Newest used are SSRI's

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAO) were the first antidepressants. They have sever side effcts. Inhibition of MAO increases neurotranmsitter to be released. Increases NE DA and 5HT. Side effects include changes in blood pressure, sleep disturbances, overeating, excessive weight gain cant eat fermented foods because MAO in the liver is needed

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) -bind to presynaptic transporter proteins inhibiting reuptake of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic terminal. prolongs the duration of the transmitter

side effects include sedation and fatigue dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, confusion, impaired memory blurred vision hypertension, tachycardia and arrhythmia

Explain why the atypical neuroleptics are referred to as broad-spectrum antipsychotics. Name 2 major drugs in this category and identify their advantages and disadvantages over the older medications. Are they perfect solutions for schizophrenia? why or why not?

They are called broad spectrum antipsychotics because they block other receptor seretonin subtypes.

Clozapine is the best known atypical drug- clozapine is effective for patients that are treatment resistant but otherwise no more effective than traditional medications at relieving positive side effects, however it is is the first antipsychotic able to relieve some negative and cognitive systems. makes seizures and other side effects more likely, so it is not a perfect solution to schizophrenia.

Other drugs were created to lessen side effects such as risperidone, olazapine, quetiapine etc

Explain why the process involved in the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and the consequences of their development. What is the normal function of beta amyloid? Of tau protein?

Amyloid plaques are an accumulation of beta-amyloid protein between neurons in the brain. Amyloid Precursor protein is cleaved for several uses in a healthy brain, in a alzheimers brain they accumulate to form plaques.

Neurofibrillary tangles are fibrous inclusions that are located on the cytoplasm of neurons. the primary component of these tangles is tau protein .

Tau is a protein associated iwith NFTs