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36 Cards in this Set

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The senses detect visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain.
Sensation
The raw sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain.
Perception
The conversion of physical energy to an electrochemical pattern in the neurons.
Example: Light (electromagnetic energy) into electrochemical
Transduction
Receptors become less sensitive to an unchanging stimulus over time.
Example: Don't notice the watch on your wrist after a while.
Adaptation
ANATOMY OF THE EYE
focuses the light waves into a narrow beam.
Cornea
Controls the amount of light that can pass through
Iris
Focuses the light on the retina
Lens
Abundant in the periphery of the retina
Rods
Abundant around fovea.
Cone
Best for low light conditions, see black/white and shades of gray
Rods
Best for bright light conditions
Cones
Allows us to detect fine detail
cones and rods
Three types of cones that are maximally sensitive to red, green or blue (RGB)
The Two-Stage Color Theory
Opponent process neurons in the thalamus (part of the visual pathway)
The Two-Stage Color Theory
Five Basic Taste Receptors
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
Receptors located at the tip of the tongue.
Sweet
Receptors are on the front sides of the tongue.
Sour
Receptors are on the back sides of the tongue.
Salty
Receptors are on the very back of the tongue in the middle
Bitter
Receptors are in several areas on the tongue.
Umami
Gestalt Principles of Organization

We group together elements that appear similar.
Similarity
Gestalt Principles of Organization

We fill in any missing parts of a figure and see it as complete
Closure
Gestalt Principles of Organization

We group together objects that are physically close to each other.
Proximity
Gestalt Principles of Organizations

We tend to favor smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points of lines.
Continuity
tendency to perceive objects as the same size even when their images on the retina are growing or shrinking.
Size Constancy
Tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though when you view it from different angles it shape is continually changing on the retina.
Shape Constancy
See objects as maintaing a certain level of brightness regardless of the lighting conditions
Brightness/Color Constancy
based on combination of different images sent from both eyes which are in a slightly different position.
Binocular or Retinal Disparity
Based on signals sent from the muscles that turn the eyes
Convergence
Overlapping objects appear closer and objects that are occluded (hidden) appear farther away
Interposition Monocular Cues
Areas with less dense texture appear closer, more dense textures appear farther away.
Texture Gradient
Objects closest to you appear to be moving faster than those in the distance
Motion Parallax
The location on the basilar membrane that vibrates the most will produce the greatest amount of stimulation of the hair cells in that location.
Place Theory
The location of hair cell stimulation along the basilar membrane is not as important as the rate of firing in the hair cells themselves.
Frequency Theory
The pattern of firing, or "volley," of neural signals created in a group of hair cells that is crucial for determining pitch.
Volley Principle
Popular theory for pain that suggests the inhibition and excitation of particular cells in the spinal cord determine if a pain message is sent to the brain.
Gate Control Theory