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54 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Myelination
axons are covered with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed of the information travelling through the nervous system.
Egocentrism
the inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone elses.
Animism
the belief that inanimate objects have "life like" qualities and are capable of action.
Centration
the focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
Conservation
In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its quantitative properties.
Developmentally appropriate practice
education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
Heteronomous morality
first stage of moral development in piaget's theory, occuring from 4 to 7 years of age.
Autonomous morality
second stage of moral development in piaget's theory, displayed by older children .
Gender identity
the sense of being male or female , most children aquire by 3.
Inclusion
educating a child with special education needs full time in the regular classroom.
Fuzzy trace theory
states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations. VERBATIM MEMORY TRACE AND GIST.
Critical thinking
thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating the evidence.
Metacognition
cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing.
What ages are associated with early childhood?
2-6
Which area of the brain experiences most rapid growth during ages 3 to 6?
prefrontal cortex
What are the five ways many of the deaths of young children can be prevented around the world?
reduction in poverty and improvements in nutrition, sanitation, education, and health services.
What ability do children gain during the symbolic function substage?
to mentally represent an object that is not present.
Distinguish between animism and artificialism
animism- the belief that inanimate objects have "lifelike" qualities and are capable of action.

artificialism-
What characterizes the intuitive thoughts substage?
occurs between 4 and 7. children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions.
Distinguish between centration and conservation.
centration-the focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.

conservation-awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its quantitive properties.
What is the implication of scaffolding for teachers?
changing the level of support. a more skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child's current performance.
List two of the seven teaching strategies mentioned in the text based on Vygotsky’s Theory.
assess the child's ZPD and use more skilled peers as teachers.
What are strategies?
deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of information.
What does “theory of mind” refer to?
the awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
Describe the child-centered kindergarten.
education that involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive, and social development and the child's needs, interests, and learning styles.
Briefly describe the Montessori approach.
an educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and sponteity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire.
List two of five popular theories addressing the way children acquire masculine and feminine attitudes and behaviors.
social role and psychoanalytic
List two of four parenting styles.
authoritative and neglectful.
What are four sources we use to select our parenting mode?
acceptance, responsiveness, demand, and control
List two of the many types of play.
solarity and onlooker
What is the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood?
.
What major differences among children growing up with lesbian mothers or gay fathers compared to growing up with heterosexual parents have researchers uncovered according to our text?
there are no major differences.
When is it better for the child psychologically for the parents to divorce, to not divorce
when the child's personality, and temperament, gender, and custody situtation is ready.
How does television influence children both positively and negatively?
negative- it can make them passive learners and teaching them stereotypes.

positive-presenting motivating educational programs and increasing their information about the world beyond their immediate environment.
List three components characterizing a learning disability.
a minimimum IQ level

a significant difficulty in school related area

exclusion of only severe emotional disorders.
List three characteristics of ADHD.
inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
List two of the general teaching principles based on Piaget’s theory mentioned in Chapter 10.
.
List the three popular Wechsler Scales..
preschool and primary scale of intelligence-3

scale for children 4 integrated

wechsler adult intelligence scale.
List four of Gardner’s eight types of intelligence
verbal, mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
What is the ninth type of intelligence being considered?
.
What is the average tallness of girls and boys at age 11?
..
What are 2 of 4 suggestions mentioned to get children to exercise more?
offer more physical activity programs and improve physical fitness activities in school
What is dyslexia?
A category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
What is an IEP? LRE?
.
Distinguish between the whole- language approach and the basic – skills - & - phonetics approach to reading instruction
.
What ways can children’s self-esteem be improved?
identify the cause of low self esteem, provide emotional support, and social approval, help children achieve, help children cope.
Distinguish between self-esteem and self-concept.
self esteem- the global evaluative dimension of the self.

self concept-domain specific evaluations of the self.
List the four main areas involved in emotional intelligence according to Goleman.
developing emotional self awareness, managing emotions, reading emotions, and handling relationships
What can we do to reduce gender stereotyping?
androgyny
List some strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students.
.
List Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development.
HETERONOMOUS
(INDIVIDUALISM, INSTRUMENTAL PURPOSE, EXCHANGE) (MUTUAL INTERPERSONAL EXPECTATIONS, RELATIONSHIPS, INTERPERSONAL CONFORMITY)
What is a jigsaw classroom?
students from different cultural backgrounds are placed within a cooperative group in which they have to construct different parts of a project to each a common goal.
What factors contribute to the drop of self-esteem from elementary to middle school?
.
Develop some strategies for improving relationships among ethically diverse students.
.