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38 Cards in this Set

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Motivation

The process of initiating, sustaining and directing the activities of the organism

Primary motives

Based on biological needs necessary for survival


Examples are hunger drive


thirst drive and sex drive

Stimulus motives

Innate needs for stimulation and Information Such as curiosity

Learned motives

Motives based on learned needs, drives and goals

Biological factors in hunger

Hypothalamus


-Feeding center (on switch)


Satiety center (off switch)


Stomach contractions


Blood sugar levels

Psychological factors of hunger

-Emotions


-learning and conditioning


-Incentive

Biological factors in sex drive

Hypothalamus and sex drive hormones

Psychological factors to sex drive

-Emotions


-learning and conditioning


-Incentive

Optimal arousal theory

performance is best when arousal or stimulation is not too high, and not too low.



Relationship between arousal level and task performance

Yerkes-dodson law

Complex tasks peak at lower levels of arousal while simple tasks peak at high levels of arousal



The point at which the relationship between task and performance of arousal level change from positive to a negative correlation

Solomon's opponent-process theory

when one emotion is experienced, the other is suppressed.



(for example, fear-relief, pleasure-pain

Need for achievement

the need for success or the attainment of excellence. Individuals will satisfy their needs through different means, and are driven to succeed for varying reasons both internal and external.

Need for affilation

a person's need to feel a sense of involvement and "belonging" within a social group

Intrinsic motivation

Motivated because they enjoy doing it or because its the right thing to do


-internal factors

External factor

Motivated for a payoff (reward)


-external factors

Maslows theory

A theory of human motivation



●Self Actualization


●Anesthetic


●Intellectual


●Self-esteen


●Love and Belongingness


●Saftey


●Biological

Emotion

Positive or negative feeling which occur in response to some stimuli, and which are accompanied by physiological arousal and related behavior

Components of emotion

○Stimuli- thalamus


●Conscious awareness- cortex


○psysiological arousal- hypothalamus


●Related behavior- motor cortex

Frustration

Occurs when motives are blocked

Conflict (4 Types)

Occur when motives interfere with one another



○Approach/Approach


●Avoidance/Avoidance


○Approach/Avoidance


●Double Approach/Avoidance

Stages of lifespan

Prenatal period - pregnancy


○Neonatal period - newborn


●Infancy - (Birth-age 2)


○early childhood - ages 2-7


●middle childhood - ages 7-11


○Adolescence- ages 11-19


●Early adulthood- ages 20-40


○Middle adulthood- ages 40-65


●Later adulthood- ages 65 and up

Nature vs nurture

Do inherited traits or life experiences play a greater role in shaping your personality

Heredity environment interaction

All traits depend both on genetic andenvironmental factors. Heredity andenvironment interact to produce their effects. This means that the way genes act depends on the environment in which they act. ... But the effect of that defective gene expression depends on the environment in which it occurs.

Sex chromosomes

Male-Sperm-XY



Female-Egg-XX

Genes

Dominant genes and recessive genes

Stages of prenatal development

●Germinal (Zygote)


-Conception-two weeks



○Embriotic ( Embrio)


-Two weeks- 8 weeks


Qualitative change



●Fetal stage (Fetus)


8 weeks to birth

Cephalocaudal development

Top> down development

Proximaldistal development

Cental> outward

Prenatal environmental influences

•Drugs and chemical agents


•Cigarettes


•most medications


•maternal disease


•Age

Piagets theory stage 1

Sensorymotor stage (birth - two weeks)


●Learning to walk and crawl


○eye-hand cordination


●Here and now sensation


○object permanence


Piagets theory stage 2

Preoperational stage. (2-7)



○Cant yet engage in logical thought


●cant understand conservation problems


○conservation of mass and liquid


●eggocentrism- cognitive self centeredness

Piaget theory stage 3

Concrete operational stage (7-11)


○Can now understand conservation problems


●can now engage in logical thought


○development of social cognition


cant grasp abstract thought

Piaget theory stage 4

Formal operational stage. (11 -onward)



●can engage in abstract thought and hypothetical reasoning


○reason on a verbal level


●full adult logic

Erikson's thoery

Puberty and searching for identity

Puberty ages

Female. 9-11


Male. 11-14

Agism

Age discrimination

Disengagement thoery

decreased interaction between the aging person and others in the social system he belongs to



Withdrawal from society

Activity thoery

Older adults remain physically active and interactive