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46 Cards in this Set

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How is gender identity defined
The psychological awareness of being male or female. Distinct from biological factors. In most cases gender identity matches chromosomal sex.
Hermaphrodite
A person who posses both ovarian and testicular tissue. It is extremely rare. Will have a chromosomal sex and they will assume that identity.
Intersexualism
A person who posses gonads of one sex but external genitalia that are ambiguous or typical of the other sex.
CAH
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, most common cause of female intersexualism. Characteristics: early development of pubic hair, tom boyish, infertile, shallow vaginas. Happens due to an increased occurance of androgens.
AIS
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Most common cause of male intersexualism. Lacking dihydrotestosterone, have ambiguous external genitalia.
Dominican Republic Syndrome
"5-ARD". Children born looking female (but in reality are male with xy sex chromosomes), at puberty testosterone kicks in and male external genitalia form. After the transition the individual now functions as a male.
Gender dysphoria
Mismatch between chromosomal sex and gender identity. MTF or FTM.
Androgens
Male hormones: testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and MIS (Mullerian inhibiting substance)
Dihydrotestosterone
Responsible for the maturation of external male genitalia.
MIS
Mullerian inhibiting substance: Inhibits the mullerian duct (in females) from forming.
Testosterone
Causes the wolffian duct to mature. Turns into the epididymis (where sperm is produced), vasdeferens (connector to epididymis and SV), and the seminal vesicle (where sperm is mixed with liquid to become semen).
Sex Differences
Cognitive: Females tend to have higher verbal fluency and males tend to score higher on visual/spatial tasks.
Personality: females slightly more likely to be extroverted and more nurturing. Males score higher on assertiveness and self-esteem.
Social behavior: Males, when observed score higher on aggressiveness. Women are more likely to seek medical care than men.
SRY
Sex determining Region of the 'Y' chromosome.
What is normal sexual behavior?
Definitions vary, some base it on:
Prevalence (how often we see it occurring is the method to base normality) and
morality (Normal being defined as morally correct).
-Definitions vary over time.
-Ethnocentrism vs. cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is ideal to understand a culture.
Erotocentrism
The belief that your own sexual behavior is normal, whatever attitude you have is superior and judge others accordingly.
Most common complaint for sex therapists?
Women and lack of orgasms
Sexual intercourse
Most popular position is missionary. 2nd most popular is face to face. Cultural variations in frequency of sex.
Premarital intercourse
FGM (female genital mutilation) in Egypt and N. Africa to prevent females from doing it.
Some cultures it is acceptable.
In general women are punished more for premarital sex.
Extramarital intercourse
As a whole not accepted in any culture. However there are some that accept it but with very strict rules.
In general men are punished more for extramarital sex.
Incest
Nearly universal taboo, difference is in how people define incest.
Most common taboo is primary relative (parent/child, grandparent/grandchild, and siblings).
Menstruation
Most cultures view menstruation as normal, in others its seen as dangerous, and in others still viewed as a health threat to others and menstruating women are isolated from society for the week.
Homosexuality
In non-industrialized countries they generally permit homosexuality.
In industrialized countries homosexuality is not looked highly upon, some even have laws against it.
The Yellow Emperor (2697-2597 BC)
Sovereign leader of China
-Wanted to know when a woman was "joyfully aroused".
-A set of writings entitled "The Secret Instructions Concerning the Jade Chamber" said women go through 5 stages:
1) Flushing of the face
2) Hardening of the breasts
3) Dryness in the throat
4) Moist vagina
5) Transmission of fluid from vagina
Intercourse starts at stage 2, instructed not to climax before stage 5.
Also noted: you could tell if a woman wants to have sex if she is breathing irregularly.
Aristotle
Mostly medical. Saw sex drive as powerful and natural for both men and women.
He believed: Orgasm in women necessary to prepare uterus for childbirth. Stronger men were more likely to produce male children.
Galen (129-199 AD)
Physician in ancient Greece & Rome. Given credit for identifying and naming gonorrhea.
-Wrote about various sex positions that he believed would be best for reproduction.
The Karma Sutra (4-6th century)
Vatsyayana. Collection of poetry and prose. Believed that sex was an art that should be studied to be perfected.
Sprenger & Kramer (1486)
Malleus Maleficarum "witches hammer": A handbook for describing and diagnosing withcraft.
-Belief at the time females were witches who had sex with the devil (who was thought to cause all disease and bad things).
Sex was thought to be dangerous.
Sylvester Graham (1794-1851)
Believed excessive stimulation contributed to disease, recommended a diet heavy in certain grains. Invented the graham cracker to reduce the sex drive.
Also advised to avoid stimulants such as alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, tea, vinegar, salt, pepper, rich gravies.
John Harvey Kellogg (1852-1943)
Invented corn flakes in part as an anti-masturbation food.
Richard Vonkrafft-Ebbing (1840-1902)
Wrote "Psychopathia Sexualis" (1882). Psuedoscientific book that describes any form of sex that does not aim at procreation as pathological, disgusting, and potentially riddled with disease (why penis rings were invented). Parts of book that were arousing he wrote in Latin so uneducated people wouldn't understand and wouldn't read for pleasure.
Dr. Clelia Mosher (1863-1940)
U.S. physician taught hygiene to students at Stanford Uni.
Had women she knew fill out a questionnaire on marital relations.
Discovered what women were thinking and doing was very different than preconceptions about Victorian era.
1/2 said when women got married the new nothing or had misconceptions about sex.
75% said they had sex at least once a week.
75% said they had an orgasm some or most of the time.
Indicated they enjoyed sex and used birth control.
Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939)
Published 7 volume series in the "Psychology of Sex".
First man (known as the Einstein of Sex) of science to write about these matters in a neutral non-judgmental way.
Talked about homosexuality, prostitution, pregnancy, the art of love, masturbation.
Helena Wright (1887-1982)
Wrote "The Sex Factor of Marriage" (1930). Sex manual that describes genitalia, how to achieve orgasm through intercourse and masturbation.
Marie Stopes
Wrote a sex manual. She married a fellow researcher but annulled the marriage after 6 months since he viewed sex as disgusting.
Modern Studies: Alfred Kinsey (1894-1956)
The Kinsey reports 2 volumes
"Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" (1948) followed by "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" (1953). 800 pgs each. FIRST to attempt to do a scientific study. Numbers became the gold standard.
Morton Hunt (1974)
Journalist conducted study for Playboy. First major representative study since Kinsey (post-pill and post-sexual revolution)
20% agree to do study. Volunteer bias, however most representative at the time.
1,000 item questionnaire.
Modern Studies: Masters & Johnson (1966)
First book "Human Sexual Response" described what happens physiologically during sexual arousal for both men and women.
-Based on lab observations.
-2nd book "Human Sexual Inadequacy" about sexual dysfunctions (the book that opens up sex therapy).
Modern Studies: Edward Brecher (1984)
Journalist conducted first real survey on older people (50-80 year olds) for consumer reports.
-Trouble with survey was they were wealthier. The more money, the more healthcare, the healthier the more sex they had.
Modern Studies: Shere Hite (1976, 1981, 1987)
Published: The Hype Report, The Hype Report on Male Sexuality, Women and Love.
-Collected data by conducting seminars and asking people to do questionnaires. She was criticized by the academic community.
Modern Studies: Blumstein & Schwartz (1983)
Published "American Couples" About straight, gay, married, unmarried.
-No matter orientation it was determined guys were more likely to initiate sex & the longer the couple was together the less sex they were having.
Modern Studies: Magazine Surveys
Referred to as readership surveys.
Polling readers and results published in magazine.
-Findings are NOT a random sample. Volunteer bias is a problem.
Modern Studies: NHSLS Survey (1994)
FIRST to do most representative NATIONAL survey. Used oversampling to produce more accurate results.
-Purpose was to find general info about sexual behavior (and AIDS).
-Initially govt funded but later ostracized, was funded privately.
Modern Studies: CDC Study (2005)
The National Survey of Family Growth.
-12,000+ sampled, used NHSLS methodology.
-79% response rate, face-to-face interviews of 15-44 year olds.
Surveys
1.Face to face: Advantage: able to clarify questions, have a higher response rate, and not relying on pops with a phone or computer.
-Problem social desirability bias and lack of anonymity.
2. Mail/online
3. Telephone
Observation
1. Ethnographic observation: more of an interview than observation, but happens in the subjects culture.
2. Participant observation: researcher participates in the subject being studied.
3. Non-participant observation: Researcher does not participate (Masters & Johnson).
Empirical/Experimental Method
Design to study EFFECTS. Biggest issue is with random assignment.
-Look at treatments, sex drugs, or sex therapy to see what is effective.
-Only way to establish causation.