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129 Cards in this Set

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1.Motivation is defined by psychologists as:
A)an impulse to accomplish something of significance.
B)rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of all people.
C)a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
D)the cause of behavior.
C)a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
2.A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n):
A)set point.
B)drive.
C)instinct.
D)incentive.
C)instinct.
3.An instinctive behavior is one that is:
A)designed to reduce drives
B)triggered by a sexual incentive.
C)similar in all living organisms.
D)unlearned.
D)unlearned.
4. It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of:
A)an instinct.
B)homeostasis.
C)an incentive.
D)a drive.
A)an instinct.
5.An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n):
A)instinct.
B)incentive.
C)drive.
D)set point.
C)drive
6.Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:
A)a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of an entire species.
B) an aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
C) the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
D)a physical need that usually triggers motivational arousal.
C) the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
7.On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of:
A)set points.
B)homeostasis.
C)incentives.
D) optimal arousal.
C)incentives.
8.The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:
A)self-esteem.
B)love and friendship.
C)religious fulfillment.
D)food and water.
C)religious fulfillment
9.According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
A)love; food
B)adequate clothing; self-esteem
C)self-actualization; friendship
D)political freedom; economic security
B)adequate clothing; self-esteem
10.The set point is:
A)the second stage of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
B)the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.
C)the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal.
D)the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
D)the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
11.When an organism's weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):
A)decrease in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
B)increase in hunger and a decrease in basal metabolic rate.
C)decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.
D)increase in both hunger and basal metabolic rate.
C)decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate.
12.Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed ________ satisfaction with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) ________ incidence of serious eating disorders.
A)increasing; decreasing
B)increasing; increasing
C)decreasing; decreasing
D)decreasing; increasing
D)decreasing; increasing
13.The recipes commonly used in countries with hot climates are more likely to include ________ than those in countries with colder climates.
A)spices
B)carbohydrates
C)fats
D)proteins
A)spices
14.A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing:
A)low blood pressure.
B)stored energy.
C)a low set point.
D)reduced levels of serotonin.
B)stored energy.
15.When people's images on a video monitor are widened to make them look fatter, observers perceive them as:
A)more sincere and more friendly.
B)more sincere and less friendly.
C)less sincere and less friendly.
D)less sincere and more friendly.
C)less sincere and less friendly.
16.When an organism's weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):
A)increase in hunger and an increase in its metabolic rate.
B)increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.
C)decrease in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.
D)decrease in hunger and an increase in its metabolic rate.
B)increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.
17.Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that:
A)mice injected with daily doses of leptin become less active and gain weight.
B)people lose a pound of weight for every reduction of 3500 calories in their diet.
C)weights of adopted people are highly correlated with weights of their adoptive parents.
D)obesity is more common today than it was 50 years ago.
D)obesity is more common today than it was 50 years ago
18.Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand hunger motivation. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by:
A)a natural wariness of unfamiliar foods.
B)mass media standards of appearance.
C)bouts of depression and anxiety.
D)the universal idealization of thinness.
B)mass media standards of appearance.
19.Which of the following suggestions would be the worst advice for a dieter?
A)“Minimize your exposure to tempting foods.”
B)“Accompany your diet with a sustained exercise program.”
C)“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.
D)“Reduce your weight gradually over a period of many months.”
C)“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.
20.The refractory period is the:
A)moment before orgasm during which sexual arousal is maintained at a fairly high level.
B)stage of the sexual response cycle during which sexual excitation reaches its climax.
C)span of the monthly female reproductive cycle during which ovulation occurs.
D)time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.
D)time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.
21.In most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when:
A)testosterone levels are lowest.
B)testosterone levels are highest.
C)estrogen levels are lowest.
D)estrogen levels are highest.
D)estrogen levels are highest
22.James Dabbs and his colleagues observed that the ________ levels of heterosexual male collegians were especially likely to increase while they were conversing with a ________ college student.
A)testosterone; female
B)insulin; male
C)glucose; female
D)PYY; male
A)testosterone; female
23.Women fantasize about sex ________ men. Fantasizing about sex ________ indicate a sexual problem or sexual dissatisfaction.
A)less frequently than; does
B)as frequently as; does not
C)less frequently than; does not
D)as frequently as; does
C)less frequently than; does not
24.Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because:
A)low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use.
B)they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
C)sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use.
D)of all of these reasons.
B)they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.
25.Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience:
A)enhanced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
B)reduced self-awareness and are more likely to use condoms.
C)enhanced self-awareness and are more likely to use condoms.
D)reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
D)reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.
26.Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have:
A)sexually vivid dreams that lead to orgasm.
B)imagined being taken sexually by someone overwhelmed with passion.
C)watched a higher-than-average amount of prime-time television.
D)participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.
D)participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.
27.Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior, is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their:
A)erotic plasticity.
B)sexual response cycle.
C)sexual orientation.
D)refractory period.
C)sexual orientation
28.A biological component of homosexuality is most clearly indicated by evidence of:
A)sexual interactions between same-sex organisms in several hundred different animal species.
B)an increased incidence of same-sex attraction among women who were womb-mates of twin brothers.
C)the overrepresentation of homosexual and bisexual people among poets and fiction writers.
D)the linkage between sexual orientation and the levels of sex hormones currently in one's blood.
A)sexual interactions between same-sex organisms in several hundred different animal species
29.Research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by:
A)manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
B)exposure only to animals of the same sex.
C)injections of sex hormones in early adulthood.
D)destruction of the hippocampus.
A)manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
30.With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that:
A)sexual activity is largely a medical and biological issue, not a moral issue.
B)scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own personal values.
C)researchers should not reveal their sexual values because sexual standards are a matter of personal taste.
D)sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values.
D)sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values
31.


Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are genetically predisposed to:
A)engage in both homosexual and heterosexual behaviors.
B)form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
C)avoid eating carbohydrate-laden foods when feeling depressed.
D)satisfy their need for political freedom before seeking emotional security.
B)form close enduring relationships with fellow humans
32.Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs.
A)safety
B)belongingness
C)achievement
D)self-actualization
B)belongingness
33.Those who view their work as a necessary but personally unfulfilling way to make money are said to view work as a:
A)contract.
B)job.
C)calling.
D)career.
B)job.
34.Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology's principles to the workplace?
A)social psychology
B)personality psychology
C)developmental psychology
D)industrial-organizational psychology
D)industrial-organizational psychology
35.Developing assessment tools for selecting and placing employees is of most direct relevance to:
A)clinical psychology.
B)organizational psychology.
C)human factors psychology.
D)personnel psychology.
D)personnel psychology.
36.When meeting job applicants, employers often discount the influence of varying situations on applicants' behaviors and presume that what they observe applicants do and say reflects the applicants' enduring personality traits. This most clearly contributes to:
A)360-degree feedback.
B)the interviewer illusion.
C)strengths-based selection systems.
D)the experience of flow.
B)the interviewer illusion
37.If interviewers instantly like a job applicant because of his or her good looks, they may judge the person's complimentary remarks as indicating “polite manners” rather than “manipulative flattery.” This best illustrates the impact of ________ on the interpretation of interviewees' responses.
A)transformational leadership
B)interviewers' preconceptions
C)360-degree feedback
D)a strengths-based selection system
B)interviewers' preconceptions
38.Dr. Thompson is involved in scripting interview questions that will effectively predict job applicants' success in specific work positions. Her work best illustrates that of a(n) ________ psychologist.
A)personnel
B)organizational
C)human factors
D)clinical
A)personnel
39.Jeff, who is 14, engages in rigorous tennis drills or competitive play at least four hours every day because he wants to master the sport and play on one of the best college teams in the country. His goal and behavior best illustrate the concept of:
A)360-degree feedback.
B)engagement.
C)flow.
D)achievement motivation.
D)achievement motivation.
40.People who are high in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks; people who are low in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks.
A)very difficult; very easy
B)moderately difficult; very easy or very difficult
C)very easy or moderately difficult; very difficult
D)very difficult or very easy; moderately difficult
B)moderately difficult; very easy or very difficult
41.Ted is an amateur golfer who has a high need for achievement. Research suggests that Ted most likely prefers playing golf on courses that for him are:
A)very easy.
B)moderately difficult.
C)extremely difficult.
D)very easy or very difficult.
B)moderately difficult
42.By publicly praising their employees' positive behaviors, managers often encourage their workers to continue laboring productively. This best illustrates the value of:
A)reinforcement.
B)360-degree feedback.
C)a democratic management style.
D)experiencing flow.
A)reinforcement.
43.If given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision. This best illustrates the value of:
A)360-degree feedback.
B)task leadership.
C)a democratic management style.
D)structured interviews.
C)a democratic management style
44.According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.
A)facial expressions; a cognitive label
B)emotion-arousing events; physical arousal
C)physical arousal; overt behavior
D)a cognitive label; physical arousal
D)a cognitive label; physical arousal
45.The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions.
A)conscious experiences
B)expressive behaviors
C)physiological arousal
D)subjective well-being
C)physiological arousal
46.When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by:
A)decreases in blood sugar levels.
B)slowing of digestion.
C)increases in salivation.
D)decreases in respiration rate.
B)slowing of digestion.
47.A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is:
A)acetylcholine.
B)epinephrine.
C)testosterone.
D)insulin.
B)epinephrine.
48.Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?
A)somatic
B)central
C)sympathetic
D)parasympathetic
D)parasympathetic
49.A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the ________ associated with each.
A)hormone secretions
B)finger temperatures
C)heart rates
D)brain activity
C)heart rates
50.For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n):
A)electrocardiograph.
)electroencephalograph.
C)myograph.
D)polygraph.
D)polygraph.
51.Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that:
A)our thoughts are not influenced by our emotional states.
B)our normal feelings of love and anger are typically irrational.
C)the two-factor theory of emotion is essentially correct.
D)sometimes emotions precede cognition.
D)sometimes emotions precede cognition.
52.Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another's:
A)eyes.
B)lips.
C)hand gestures.
D)body postures.
A)eyes.
53.People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of:
A)anger.
B)surprise.
C)happiness.
D)boredom.
A)anger
54.In terms of ability to recognize others' facial expressions of emotion:
A)introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.
B)introverts do worse than extraverts and women do better than men.
C)introverts do better than extraverts and women do worse than men.
D)introverts do worse than extraverts and women do worse than men.
A)introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.
55.Male and female students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their:
A)self-reported emotions.
B)changes in heart rate.
C)facial expressions of emotion.
D)changes in respiration.
C)facial expressions of emotion
56.The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of:
A)human genetic similarities.
B)the adaptation-level phenomenon.
C)the catharsis hypothesis.
D)the spillover effect.
A)human genetic similarities
57.It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the:
A)evolutionary perspective.
B)relative deprivation principle.
C)two-factor theory.
D)adaptation-level phenomenon.
A)evolutionary perspective
58.Ten distinct and basic emotions were identified by:
A)William James.
B)Charles Darwin.
C)Stanley Schachter.
D)Caroll Izard.
D)Caroll Izard.
59.A friend's misdeed is especially likely to trigger feelings of anger if the misdeed is perceived as:
A)a spontaneous remission.
B)a spillover effect.
C)cathartic.
D)willful.
D)willful.
60.After 9/11, Americans who responded with anger more than fear also displayed:
A)more prejudice.
B)less heart disease.
C)more subjective well-being.
D)less physiological arousal.
A)more prejudice
61.The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they:
A)are more willing to help others.
B)make decisions more effectively.
C)experience a more positive self-image.
D)report greater satisfaction with their whole lives.
A)are more willing to help others
62.People who become blind eventually experience ________ levels of day-to-day happiness. Those who become paralyzed eventually experience ________ levels of day-to-day happiness.
A)above-normal; below-normal
B)below-normal; above-normal
C)above-normal; above-normal
D)near-normal; near-normal
D)near-normal; near-normal
63.The loss of an arm in an automobile accident is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction. Winning a million-dollar casino jackpot is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction.
A)decrease; have little effect on
B)decrease; increase
C)have little effect on; increase
D)have little effect on; have little effect on
D)have little effect on; have little effect on
64. During the last four decades, the buying power of Americans has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________.
A)remained almost unchanged; decreased
B)increased; remained almost unchanged
C)remained almost unchanged; increased
D)remained almost unchanged; remained almost unchanged
B)increased; remained almost unchanged
65.Surveys of subjective well-being in 82 countries indicate that the two countries with the highest levels of self-reported happiness are:
A)Puerto Rico and Mexico.
B)Canada and the Netherlands.
C)Ireland and Switzerland.
D)The United States and Australia.
A)Puerto Rico and Mexico
66.The relative deprivation principle refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by:
A)genetics.
B)previous experiences.
C)physiological arousal.
D)others' attainments.
D)others' attainments.
67.Haley's parents bought her a used bicycle for her birthday. She was thrilled until she learned that her best friend received a brand new bicycle on her birthday. Haley's declining satisfaction illustrates the:
A)relative deprivation principle.
B)adaptation-level phenomenon.
C)catharsis hypothesis.
D)facial feedback effect.
A)relative deprivation principle
68.Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?
A)being well educated
B)having children
C)having a meaningful religious faith
D)being physically attractive
C)having a meaningful religious faith
69.One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to:
A)focus more attention on themselves.
B)participate in regular aerobic exercise.
C)overestimate how much they can accomplish.
D)do all of these things.
B)participate in regular aerobic exercise.
70.The text defines stress as:
A)the experience of conflicting motives that produce anxiety and tension.
B)the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.
C)the blocking of an attempt to reach some important goal.
D)physical, emotional, or mental exhaustion.
B)the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges
71.As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.
A)parasympathetic
B)sympathetic
C)somatic
D)central
B)sympathetic
72.The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the:
A)production of endorphins.
B)body's response to aerobic exercise.
C)body's response to prolonged stress.
D)process of biofeedback
C)body's response to prolonged stress.
73.The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are:
A)attention, comprehension, and resistance.
B)alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
C)adrenal release, cognitive appraisal, and stomach ulceration.
D)reactive frustration, sympathetic arousal, and parasympathetic inhibition.
B)alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
74.The threat to one's immune system is greatest during the ________ phase of the GAS.
A)resistance
B)stress appraisal
C)alarm reaction
D)exhaustion
D)exhaustion
75.Research on stressful life events indicates that:
A)those who live a relatively peaceful, monastic life actually suffer a higher-than-average rate of heart attacks.
B)those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
C)survivors of a natural disaster are immunized against stress and have fewer long-term health problems.
D)all of these statements are true.
B)those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.
76.Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.
A)problem-focused
B)emotion-focused
C)Type A
D)Type B
C)Type A
77.Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
A)Valentin, a self-confident, intelligent journalist
B)Kane, a relaxed, easy-going mail carrier
C)Philip, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president
D)Thomas, an introverted, inhibited mental patient
C)Philip, a competitive, hot-tempered corporation president
78.Who is the best example of a Type B personality?
A)George, a self-confident, time-conscious mail carrier
B)Wang Lung, a relaxed, easy-going dentist
C)Henry, an irritable, impatient college professor
D)Stasio, a fun-loving, hard-driving corporation president
B)Wang Lung, a relaxed, easy-going dentist
79.In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared to Type A men, Type B men were:
A)more susceptible to stomach ulcers.
B)less susceptible to stomach ulcers.
C)more susceptible to heart attacks.
D)less susceptible to heart attacks.
D)less susceptible to heart attacks.
80.Chronic anger ________ the risk of heart disease, and chronic depression ________ the risk of heart disease.
A)increases; decreases
B)increases; increases
C)has no effect on; increases
D)increases; has no effect on
B)increases; increases
81.An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field of:
A)alternative medicine.
B)psychoneuroimmunology.
C)cognitive psychology.
D)psychosomatic medicine.
B)psychoneuroimmunology.
82.Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as:
A)CAM.
B)biofeedback.
C)problem-focused coping.
D)spontaneous remission.
C)problem-focused coping.
83.To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates:
A)a Type A personality.
B)a Type B personality.
C)problem-focused coping.
D)emotion-focused coping.
D)emotion-focused coping.
84Rats that received electric shocks were unlikely to develop ulcers if the:
A)shocks were systematically associated with the delivery of appetizing food.
B)shocks were quickly terminated by the experimenter.
C)rats could control the termination of the shocks.
D)shocks became a routine part of the rats' daily life.
C)rats could control the termination of the shocks.
85.British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of:
A)spontaneous remission.
B)perceived control.
C)the general adaptation syndrome.
D)emotion-focused coping.
B)perceived control.
86.A loss of perceived control tends to result in:
A)the proliferation of lymphocytes.
B)the suppression of immune responses.
C)spontaneous remission.
D)low blood sugar levels.
B)the suppression of immune responses.
87.During the first few weeks of law school, students were observed to have stronger immune systems if they:
A)lacked NK cells.
B)were optimistic.
C)had high blood sugar levels.
D)utilized complimentary and alternative medicine.
B)were optimistic.
88.Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of:
A)a Type A personality.
B)spontaneous remission.
C)an optimistic explanatory style.
D)the general adaptation syndrome.
C)an optimistic explanatory style
89.Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in:
A)lymphocyte production.
B)depression.
C)problem-focused coping.
D)the production of endorphins.90.
B)depression
90.Mildly depressed female students assigned to a program of ________ reported a greater decrease in depression than those assigned to a program of ________.
A)problem-focused coping; emotion-focused coping
B)biofeedback; meditation
C)aerobic exercise; relaxation exercises
D)acupuncture; cognitive therapy
C)aerobic exercise; relaxation exercises
91.Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from:
A)acupuncture therapies.
B)early retirement.
C)relaxation training.
D)pain control medication.
C)relaxation training.
92.A U.S. National Health Interview Survey found that after controlling for age, sex, race, and geographical region, the longest life expectancies were associated with those who attended religious services:
A)less than once a year.
B)less than once a week.
C)once a week.
D)more than once a week.
D)more than once a week.
93.Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with:
A)light exposure therapy.
B)psychotherapy.
C)aversive conditioning.
D)psychoanalysis.
B)psychotherapy.
94.The first psychological therapy was introduced by:
A)John Watson.
B)Sigmund Freud.
C)Aaron Beck.
D)Carl Rogers.
B)Sigmund Freud.
95.Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult's psychological disorder by exploring that person's childhood experiences?
A)a psychoanalyst
B)a behavior therapist
C)a humanistic therapist
D)a cognitive therapist
A)a psychoanalyst
96.Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of:
A)cognitive therapies.
B)systematic desensitization.
C)inoculation stress training.
D)psychoanalysis.
D)psychoanalysis.
97.A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is:
A)stress inoculation training.
B)systematic desensitization.
C)active listening.
D)ree association.
D)ree association.
98.When Molly told her therapist about her frightening car accident, the therapist instructed her to close her eyes and verbalize any further thoughts stimulated by this experience, even if they were scary or embarrassing. The therapist was making use of a technique known as:
A)active listening.
B)transference.
C)systematic desensitization.
D)free association.
D)free association.
99.Psychodynamic therapies try to understand patients' current symptoms by focusing on recurring patterns in their:
A)interpersonal relationships.
B)sexual disorders.
C)eating habits and drug use.
D)self-blaming explanations.
A)interpersonal relationships.
100.Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
A)systematic desensitization
B)interpersonal psychotherapy
C)humanistic therapy
D)cognitive therapy
B)interpersonal psychotherapy
101.Unlike psychoanalytic therapists, humanistic therapists tend to focus on the ________ more than the ________.
A)present; future
B)past; present
C)present; past
D)past; future
C)present; past
102.Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to:
A)focus more on other people's feelings than on their own.
B)adapt more readily to social norms and expectations.
C)imitate the behavior of others who are happy and successful.
D)take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions.
D)take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions
103.An important feature of client-centered therapy is:
A)systematic desensitization.
B)transference.
C)free association.
D)active listening.
D)active listening.
104.When Murli told his therapist, “I came to see what you could do for me,” the therapist responded, “It sounds like you're feeling you need some help. Am I right?” The therapist's response illustrates the technique of:
A)transference.
B)free association.
C)active listening.
D)systematic desensitization.
C)active listening.
105.In one treatment for bed-wetting, the child sleeps on a liquid-sensitive pad that when wet, triggers an alarm and awakens the child. This treatment is a form of:
A)family therapy.
B)cognitive therapy.
C)behavior therapy.
D)humanistic therapy.
C)behavior therapy.
106.In 1924, Mary Cover Jones reported that 3-year-old Peter lost his fear of rabbits when one was repeatedly presented while he was eating a tasty snack. This episode best illustrated the potential usefulness of:
A)stress inoculation training.
B)exposure therapies.
C)free association.
D)unconditional positive regard.
B)exposure therapies.
107.Which of the following exemplifies exposure therapy?
A)family therapy
B)stress inoculation training
C)systematic desensitization
D)aversive conditioning
C)systematic desensitization
108.Which of the following techniques have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?
A)aversive conditioning
B)token economy
C)virtual reality exposure therapy
D)stress inoculation training
C)virtual reality exposure therapy
109.In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?
A)client-centered therapy
B)systematic desensitization
C)cognitive therapy
D)aversive conditioning
D)aversive conditioning
110.Replacing a negative response with a positive response is to systematic desensitization as replacing a positive response with a negative response is to:
A)transference.
B)operant conditioning.
C)aversive conditioning.
D)cognitive therapy.
C)aversive conditioning.
111.In treating alcoholism, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug.This technique is known as:
A)operant conditioning.
B)systematic desensitization.
C)aversive conditioning.
D)transference.
C)aversive conditioning.
112.Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of:
A)classical conditioning.
B)transference.
C)behavior modification.
D)progressive relaxation.
C)behavior modification.
113.In order to encourage Mrs. Coleman, a withdrawn schizophrenia patient, to be more socially active, institutional staff members give her small plastic cards whenever she talks to someone. She is allowed to exchange these cards for candy and cigarettes. Staff members are making use of:
A)active listening.
B)systematic desensitization.
C)a token economy.
D)classical conditioning.
C)a token economy.
114.Which therapeutic approach emphasizes that people are often disturbed because of their negative interpretations of events?
A)client-centered therapy
B)systematic desensitization
C)cognitive therapy
D)psychotherapy integration
C)cognitive therapy
115.Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to:
A)carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.
B)take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.
C)stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
D)identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.
C)stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
116.An integrated therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as:
A)psychotherapy integration.
B)client-centered therapy.
C)psychodynamic therapy.
D)cognitive-behavior therapy.
D)cognitive-behavior therapy.
117.Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for:
A)encouraging severely disturbed individuals to quickly regain normal social functioning.
B)enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own.
C)ensuring that therapists will become more emotionally involved in clients' real-life problems.
D)eliminating clients' anxiety during the process of therapy.
B)enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own
118.Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person's role within a social system?
A)cognitive therapy
B)psychoanalysis
C)family therapy
D)client-centered therapy
C)family therapy
119.People often enter psychotherapy during a period of crisis in their lives. This helps us understand why they:
A)prefer behavior therapies over other forms of treatment.
B)seldom block anxiety-laden thoughts from consciousness.
C)tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy.
D)claim to receive the most effective treatment from highly experienced clinicians.
C)tend to overestimate the effectiveness of their psychotherapy
120.Therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because:
A)therapists typically minimize the seriousness of their clients' symptoms when therapy begins.
B)clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy.
C)clients tend to focus on their observable behavioral problem rather than on their mental and emotional abilities.
D)therapists typically overestimate their clients' potential levels of adjustment.
B)clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy.
121.After performing a statistical analysis of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies, Smith and her colleagues reported in 1980 that:
A)evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.
B)psychotherapy is no more effective than talking to a friend.
C)psychotherapy harms just as many people as it helps.
D)it is impossible to measure the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
A)evidence supports the efficacy of psychotherapy.
122.Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of:
A)anxiety.
B)bulimia.
C)depression.
D)alcoholism.
C)depression.
123.Psychologists with expertise in research, the assessment of psychological disorders, and the practice of psychotherapy are typically:
A)psychopharmacologists.
B)clinical psychologists.
C)psychoanalysts.
D)psychiatrists.
B)clinical psychologists.
124.Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chronic depression, and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. It is most likely that Dr. Miller is a:
A)clinical social worker.
B)cognitive therapist.
C)psychiatrist.
D)client-centered therapist.
C)psychiatrist
125.A common ingredient underlying the success of diverse psychotherapies is the:
A)professional training and experience of the therapist.
B)escape from real-life pressures offered by psychotherapy.
C)length of time the client spends in psychotherapy.
D)client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better.
D)client's expectation that psychotherapy will make things better.
126.By earning a client's trust, empathic and caring therapists promote:
A)neurogenesis.
B)a therapeutic alliance.
C)an eclectic approach.
D)the double-blind technique.
B)a therapeutic alliance.
127.In one experiment, Asian-American clients were more likely to perceive counselor empathy if their counselor:
A)encouraged free association.
B)used an eclectic approach.
C)shared the clients' cultural values.
D)practiced systematic desensitization.
C)shared the clients' cultural values
128.Treating our mind and body as independent entities seems especially inappropriate to those who take a ________ approach to therapy.
A)biopsychosocial
B)classical conditioning
C)psychoanalytic
D)client-centered
A)biopsychosocial
129.Professor Bensfield emphasizes that recovery from bipolar disorder involves a continuous interplay among patients' physical reactions to mood-stabilizing drugs, their positive expectations that their lives will improve, and the supportive responses of patients' families and friends. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a(n) ________ approach to therapy.
A)psychodynamic
B)client-centered
C)biopsychosocial
D)operant conditioning
C)biopsychosocial