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68 Cards in this Set

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"personality"
the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person
Freud's Psychoanalytic theory
unconcious forces act as determinants of personality

-id, ego, superego
-psychosexual stages
-defense mechanisms

Unconcious
part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware
Preconcious
contains material that is not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as 2+2=4
Freud's model of personality
Id: pleasure principle to lessen tension and maximize satisfaction, inborn, raw, hedonistic, impulsive

Ego: reality principle, developes soon after birth, restrains the id to maintain safety and ensure integration into society, mediatio between id and superego

Superego: black and white rules, last personality structure to develop, handed down by parents/teachers/etc.
Psychosexual Stages
Oral: birth to 12-18 months, weaning is conflict, fixations include eating, talking, smoking, etc.

Anal: 12-18 months to 3 years, retention and expulsion, fixations include rigidity, orderliness, punctuality, sloppiness, etc.

Phallic: 3 to 5-6 years, Oedipal conflict, castration anxiety, identification with same-sex parent.

Latency: 5-6 years to adolescence, sexual interests become dormant

Genital: adolescence to adulthood, desire for adult sexuality, sexual intercourse
Defense Mechanisms
unconcious strategies used to reduce anxiety by concealing it's source from themselves and others

protects the Ego

REPRESSIONS is the primary defense mechanism

others include regression, displacement, rationalization, denial, projection, subliminalization, etc.
Neo-Freudians
psychoanalysts who were trained in traditional Freudian theory but later reject some of it's major points

Karl Jung (most influential), collective unconscious and archetypes
Karen Horney: feminist, attachment
Alfred Adler: inferiority complex
Erik Erikson
Anna Freud
Karl Jung
Collective Unconscious: common set of ideas, feelings, images, symbols that we inherit from our relatives, the whole human race, and nonhuman animal ancestors

Archetypes: universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience. Ex: good and evil
Karen Horney
Attachment theory: personality develops in the context of social relationships and depends particularly on relationship between parent and child

First feminist psychologist
Alfred Adler (and 2 others)
primary human motivation is a striving for superiority in a quest for self-improvement and perfection

Inferiority complex: describes situations in which adults have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children

Erik Erikson and Anna Freud
Trait Approaches
"inner" person

Trait theory: seeks to explain, in straightforward way, the consistencies in individuals' behavior

Factor analysis

Traits: consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations

Allport
Cattell
Eysenck
Allport
Trait Theory

Cardinal trait: single characterisic, directs most of a person's activities

Central trait: major characteristic of a an individual

Secondary trait: affect behavior in fewer situations
Cattell and Eysenck
Factoring out personality

Factor analysis: statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns

Factors: combinations of traits
The Big Five

"OCEAN"
personality traits

-openness to experience
-conscientiousness
-extraversion
-agreableness
-neuroticism (emotional stability)
Different approaches to personality
-psychodynamic
-trait
-learning
-biological/evolutionary
-humanistic
Learning approaches
"outer" person

-we are what we've learned
-focused more on environment
-social cognitive approaches
-self-efficacy (belief in one's personal capabilities) and self-esteem (our positive and negative self-evaluations)

Skinner
Bandura
Skinner
behaviorist approach: states that personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns

believes humans are infinitely changeable through learning
Psychodynamic approaches
"inner" person

idea that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about, which people have little awareness of and have no control over

Freud
Jung
Horney
Adler
(also Erikson and Anna Freud)
Social cognitive approach
mostly "outer" person but doesn't reject importance of "inner" person

-emphasizes importance of cognition as well as other behavior

-EMPHASIZES THE ROLE PLAYED BY SELF-EFFICACY (laura says to know)

-self-efficacy: belief in one's personal capabilities

-self-esteem: encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations
Bandura
-thinks people can foresee the possible outcomes of certain behaviors in a specific setting without actually having to carry them out... observational learning

Bobo doll, children watched movie of adults hitting a bobo doll and children mimicked it
Biological/Evolutionary approaches
-suggesting important personality components are inherited
-focus on the way in which people's genetic heritage affects personality

Temperament: innate disposition that emerges early in life (born with it)

Tellegen
Tellegen
University of Minnesota, studied personality traits of identical twins that were raised apart from one another
easy ways to remember approaches...
Psychodynamic: contolled by unconscious, and unseen forces

Trait: set of stable traits

Learning: situational reinforcements and punishments

Biological/Evolutionary: inherited factors

Humanistic: inherent goodness and tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning
Humanistic approaches
-emphasizes people's innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning
-self-actualization

Rogers
Maslow
Rogers
self-actualization: state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique way

self-concept: set of beliefs they hold about what they are like as individuals

-unconditional positive regard: attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
Psychological tests
standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively

reliability: measurement consistency of a test

validity: test measuring what it's designed to measure
Self-report measures
method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior

MMPI-2: (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory) identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors

test standardization: technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses
Projective tests
tests in which person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it

(PROBABLY USED MORE BY PSYCHOANALYSTS)

-sentence completion, dream analysis, rorschach

Rorschach: (ink blot) best known projective test

Thematic Apperception test (TAT): series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story
Behavioral assessments
direct measures of an individua'sl behavior used to describe personality characteristics

(PROBABLY USED MORE BY LEARNING THEORISTS)

-basically objectively observing then remedying the patients

-know what the test is claiming to measure
-base no decisions only on the results of any one test
-remember that results are not always accurate
"abnormality" and different areas of abnormal behavior
behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives

-deviation from the average
-deviation from the ideal
-sense of personal discomfort
-inability to function effectively
-a legal concept
suicide bombers...
-ARE NOT insane or mentally abnormal

-influenced by emotions, loyalties, belief systems, politics, and religion
"insanity"
a legal term for abnormal behavior
perspectives on psychological disorders
-medical: physiological causes

-psychoanalytic: psychological disorders stemmed from childhood conflicts

-behavioral: abnormal behaviors are learned responses

-cognitive: cognitions (thoughts and beliefs) are central to psychological disorders

-humanistic: one's need to self-actualize and take responsibility for own behavior

-sociocultural: behavior is shaped by family, society, and culture
"cognitions"
people's thoughts and beliefs
MEDICAL perspective on phychological disorders
suggests when an individual displays simptoms of abnormal behavior, the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual, which may reveal a hormonal imbalance, chemical defeciancy, or a brain injury

-symptoms
PSYCHOANALYTIC perspective on psychological disorders
suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression

-symptoms
BEHAVIORAL perspective on psychological disorders
perspective that looks at behavior itself as the problem

-behaviors
COGNITIVE perspective on psychological disorders
suggests that people's thoughts and beliefs are a central component of abnormal behavior
HUMANISTIC perspective on psychological disorders
emphasizes the responsability people have for their own behavior, even when it's abnormal
SOCIOCULTURAL perspective on psychological disorders
assumes that people's behavior, normal and abnormal, is shaped by the kind of family, group, society, and culture in which they live
possible applications of the different perspectives of psychological disorders
medical: examine for medical problems

psychoanalytic: seek out info about past, considering possible childhood conflicts

behavioral: concentrate on rewards and punishments, identify environmental stimuli that reinforce behavior

cognitive: focus on perceptions of self and environment

humanistic: consider behavior in terms of choices and efforts to reach potential

sociocultural: focus on how societal demands contribute to disorder
DSM-IV-TR

or DSMTR
-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.

-a system, devised by te American Psychiatric Association, used by most professionals to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior

Axis 1: clinical disorders

Axis 2: personality disorders and mental retardation

Axis 3: general medical conditions

Axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems

Axis 5: global assessment of functioning
anxiety disorders
occurance of anxiety without any obvious external cause, affecting daily life

phobic: intense, irrational fear of specific object/situations

panic: attacts, seconds to hours, doesn't have to be associated with a certain object (momentary)

general: experience long term, persistent and uncontrollable anxiety (all day long)

OCD: obsessions (persistent unwanted thoughts or ideas) and compulsions (irrisistible urge to carry out some strange and unreasonable act)
dissociative disorders
psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of different facets of a person's personality that are normally integrated

-dissociative identity disorder (DID)
-dissociative amnesia
-dissociative fugue

-COMMON TIE: allows people to escape anxiety-producing situation
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
-displays two or more distinct personalities
-once called multiple personality disorder
dissociative amnesia
-significant, selective memory loss
-"repressed memories" is sometimes used to describe lost memories
dissociative fugue
form of amnesia where the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity
mood disorders
disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living

major depression:
-severe form of depression that interferes with concentration, decision maing and sociability
-more intense and lasts longer than normal depression, and may have no clear trigger
-(dr. said on podcast) withdrawing from friends and at least 2 weeks in time

mania:
-extended state of intense, wild elation... emotional heights
-intense happiness, power, invulnerability, and energy
-usually followed by depression meaning...

bipolar disorder:
-person alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression
-previously called "manic depressive disorder"
schizophrenia
class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs

-delusions
-flat affect (lack of emotional reactivity)
-poor contact with reality
-some people think of it as purely "thought disorders"
-decline from previous level of functioning
-thought, language, and emotional disturbances
-hallucinations and perceptual disorders
four major approaches to therapy
-psychodynamic
-behavioral
-cognitive
-humanistic
PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY
GOAL: bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious to the conscious, where patients can better deal with their problems

APPROACH: psychodynamic

TREATMENT: Psychoanalysis

USES: free association, dream interpretation, and transference

free association: patient says whatever comes to mind, even if irrelevant

dream interpretation

transference:transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that was initially towards parent or other authority figure

contemporary psychodynamic approaches:
-less about history and childhood
-more about current relationships
-shorter duration
psychoanalysis
-Freud's therapy

-goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior

BEHAVIORAL THERAPY
GOAL: cange people's behavior to allow them to function more effectively

exposure treatment: behavior treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, suddently or gradually, with a stimulus that they fear

APPROACH: behavioral--builds on the basic process of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned

-people who act abnormally have either failed to learn skills needed to cope with problems, or acquired faulty skills being maintained through reinforcement

TREATMENTS: classical conditioning

USES: aversive conditioning, systematic desensitization, and exposure

aversive conditioning: pairs an adversive, unpleasant stimulus with the undesired behavior

systematic desensitization: gradual exposure to an anxiety producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety (also uses hierarchy of fears)

operant conditioning:
-token systems
-contingency contracting
-observational learning




problems with aversive conditioning
-ethical concerns around potent stimuli such as electric shock

-long term effectiveness is questioned

-patients might learn to cause self-harm as after affect
COGNITIVE THERAPY
GOAL: change the way people think and their behavior

APPROACH:
-cognitive: teaches people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognition about the world and themselves
-cognitive-behavioral: incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think

TREATMENT: short term, highly structured, focuse on concrete problems

USES: rational-emotive behavior therapy: attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior
difference between exposure (flooding) and desensitization
desensitization: GRADUAL exposure paired with a relaxant

exposure (flooding): suddently confronted with a stimulus they fear
difference between the medical model and the psychotherapy/humanistic model?
medical model: intervening medically/shock/psychosurgery/medication, etc.

psychotherapy/humanistic: talk therapy
HUMANISTIC THERAPY
GOAL: enable people to reach potential for self-actualization (realizing your highest potential)

APPROACH: humanistic--rationale that people can have control of their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems

TREATMENT: person-centered therapy

USES: unconditional positive regard-- expressing acceptance and understanding, regardless of the feelings and attitues of the client
limitations on the medical model
-finding a genetic influence doesn't necessarily mean that's the only cause

-people not taking responsibility for actions
Interpersonal therapy (PT)
short term therapy that focusees on the context of current social relationships

-conflicts with others, social issues, role transitions, grief, etc.
group therapy
several unrelated people meet with a therapist to discuss some aspect of their psychological functioning
family therapy
involves 2 or more family members, 1 or more whose problems lead to treatment

-focus on the family dynamics
self-help therapy
people with similar problems get together to discuss their shared feelings and experiences

-alcoholics anonymous (AA)
-bereavement support group
drug classifications for therapy
antipsychotic: used to reduce severe symptoms of disturbance such as loss of touch with reality and agitation

antidepressant: used in cases of severe depression to improve the moods of the patients

mood stabilizers: treats mood disorders and can be a preventative treatment, blocking episodes of manic depression

antianxiety: reduce the level of anxiety a person experiences and increase the feeling of well-being
Rosenhan study
-students were admitted to a mental hospital as imposters

-acted completely normal and no medical employee ever noticed or caught on
Clinical terms vs. Layman's terms
Clinical: DID
Dissociative Identity Disorder

Layman: MPD
Multipersonality Disorder
___________________________

Clinical: Bipolar disorder

Laymans: MDD?
Manic-depressive disorder
emotional upheaval and "catharsis"
process of discharging built-up aggressive energy

-somehow fits in with psychotherapy and freud's psychoanalytic theory